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Perceiving the maximum stand touching height when attaching sticks on upperlimb: Testing the position, weigth, and perceptual modality factors
standing reach height
|Abstract:||當個體穿戴器物或設備時，個體行動與環境之間的關係會因此產生何種變化？以及，行為者如何覺察這樣的改變，而有適當的因應？生態心理學的直接知覺觀點指出，個體經由行動以覺知環境訊息，並透過這些訊息引發適配的行動。本研究實驗一旨在探討個體上肢不同部位附加不同重量器物時，站觸高度的判斷是否會受到器物重量的影響。為使個體作出正確的判斷，於實驗二中加入不同知覺形式搭配不同知覺經驗的方式 (觸動覺、觸動覺後加入視覺、以及觸動覺同時加上視覺)，檢驗知覺知悉是否能增進個體在附加器物時的最大站觸高度知覺判斷。實驗一24名參與者，隨機分派於：(一)、先重物後輕物，與(二)、先輕物後重物兩組，每組均須將輕重附加物附加於上臂、前臂、與手背三個部位，總共進行24次的試作。實驗二36名參與者，依照知覺形式分派到三個組別，並於知悉結束後再依據隨機分派的方式，進行輕重物附加於手臂不同部位的最大站觸高度知覺判斷。實驗一以2 (附加順序) x 3 (附加部位) x 2 (重量) 混合設計三因子變異數分析檢驗輕重器物出現順序對輕重器物於不同部位附加時以及手持時的站觸高度知覺差異。實驗二以3 (知覺形式) x 3 (附加部位) x 2 (重量) 混合設計三因子變異數分析，檢驗每種知悉方式對不同重量器物附加於不同手臂部位，知覺附加時以及手持時的站觸高度所造成的差異。實驗一結果顯示，重量順序不會影響個體最大站觸高度知覺，但是器物附著於腕部時的知覺站觸高度大於肘部，且肘部大於肩部；重器物的知覺站觸高度大於輕器物。知覺器物手持時的站觸高度，附加位置不影響個體對器物手持時之高度判斷，但是重量是影響因子。實驗二結果顯示，不同知覺知悉對於器物附加時的最大站觸高度影響無差異，附加位置以及器物重量會影響知覺站觸高度；有視覺知覺知悉的組別，準確性較僅以觸動覺知悉組佳。因此，本研究結論為知覺器物手持時之最大站觸高度，器物附加位置以及重量會影響判斷，若在試作前有視覺知覺知悉的過程，其判斷準確性較佳。|
When individuals wear the devices, how do they perceive the relationship between their action and environment? We can investigate such questions based on the direct perception perspective of ecological psychology. Individuals can act to perceive more information from the environment, and get the information about the possibility of their action as well. The main concern of this study is to test whether the weight of the sticks that are attached to different parts of the arm affects the standing reach height. In order to increase the rate of correct judgement, participants are offered by different opportunities for exploration (dynamic touch, visual information after dynamic touch, and dynamic touch with visual information). In experiment 1, we recruited 24 adults as our participants, and they were assigned to two groups randomly. The participants of the first group had to attach heavy sticks prior to light sticks, and they were attached light sticks prior to heavy sticks in the second group. In each group, participants had to attach different sticks to their upper arms, front arms, and the back of their palms. There were 4 trials in each condition, and 24 trials totally. There were 36 participants recruited for the second experiment. They were assigned to three practice groups randomly. The first one was a dynamic touch learning group, the second one was visual perception after dynamic touch learning group, and the last one was a dynamic touch with visual perception learning group. After practicing, they were assigned to judge the stand-reaching height with different sticks attached to upper arms, front arms, and back palms. The maximum stand-reaching height perception was measured when objects were attached to different parts of arms by two 2 (heavy stick first vs. light stick first) 3 (shoulder, elbow, and wrist) 2 (heavy stick vs. light stick) mixed-design three-way ANOVAs to check the relationship between sticks’ weight order and the parts of the arms. In order to check the effects of practice, we testified the results by two 3 (dynamic touch, dynamic touch then visual, and dynamic touch plus visual) 2 (heavy sticks vs. light sticks) 3 (shoulder, elbow, and wrist) mixed-design three-way ANOVAs. The findings of experiment 1 showed that individuals’ perception of maximum reaching height didn’t be influenced by the order of sticks. When the sticks were attached to the wrist, participants had the maximum perception of stand-reaching height, and when heavy sticks were attached, participants have a heigher perception of stand-reaching height then light sticks. The position of attached sticks didn’t affect the perception of maximum stand-reaching height when being asked to hold a stick, but the weight of the sticks does. In experiment 2, perceptual learning from different perceptual modalities didn’t affect the maximum stand-reaching height when sticks were attached. When the sticks were attached to the wrist, individuals had the maxmium perception of stand-reaching height, and they had a higher perception of stand-reaching height when heavier sticks were attached. Learning with visual perception can cause more correct perception when the sticks were attached and asked to hold.
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