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    Sex differences in the trajectories of and factors related to extracurricular sport participation and exercise: a cohort study spanning 13 years
    ( 2020-11-02) Wu, Wen-Chi ; Chang, Ling-Yin ; Luh, Dih-Ling ; Wu, Chi-Chen ; Stanaway, Fiona ; Yen, Lee-Lan ; Chang, Hsing-Yi
    Abstract Background Extracurricular sport participation and exercise (ESPE) refers to regular exercise/sport participation in addition to the physical education in school among a school-aged population. Rather than general physical activity, ESPE is typically deliberately initiated and presents an efficient target for interventions. However, compared to physical activity, relatively few studies have investigated sex differences in the development of and factors associated with ESPE using a person-centered approach. This study aimed to examine the latent trajectories of ESPE from childhood to emerging adulthood across sexes, and to identify the associated sex-specific individual (i.e., body mass index, body dissatisfaction, stress, and screen behavior) and parental (i.e., parental exercise and parental screen behavior) factors. Methods This study used data from part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) project, which comprised 2072 fourth graders (aged 9 years) in Northern Taiwan followed annually from 2001 to 2013 (13 waves). Repeated-measures latent class analysis was used to identify the trajectories of ESPE for males and females, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression was further used to identify sex-specific factors related to ESPE. Results Four trajectories of ESPE were identified for males and females. For males, these trajectories were Rarely-to-Never (20%), Often-to-Rarely (32%), Always-to-Never (21%), and Always (27%). For females, these trajectories were Rarely-to-Never (34%), Rarely (23%), Always-to-Rarely (33%), and Always (10%). We observed that the developmental patterns of ESPE varied by sex such that there was an earlier decline in the trajectories of ESPE in females than in males and that, compared with males, fewer females maintained exercise habits in young adulthood. Furthermore, we found several sex-specific factors related to ESPE, namely, stress, BMI, and parental exercise. Body dissatisfaction and individual screen behavior were associated with trajectories of ESPE for both sexes. Conclusions We found distinct trajectories of ESPE from childhood to emerging adulthood for both sexes. The trajectories of ESPE for males and females, however, differ in terms of patterns and associated factors. Our findings suggest that efforts to increase ESPE should be initiated early, and may be made more effective by considering sex differences.
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    Prison sentencing increases the risk of unemployment among illegal heroin users in Taiwan
    ( 2020-10-12) Lee, Charles T ; Huang, Chiu-Mieh ; Chang, Li-Chun ; Wang, Shih-Wen ; Hsu, Hsiao-Pei ; Liao, Jung-Yu ; Guo, Jong-Long
    Abstract Background Previous studies have rarely explored the effect of type of sentencing on employment status among illegal heroin users, therefore, we aims to examine the association of the sentencing types and employment outcomes among illegal heroin users in Taiwan. Methods Participants with illegal heroin use were identified through the national prison register system and deferred prosecution system: 2406 with deferred prosecutions, 4741 with observation and rehabilitation, 15 compulsory rehabilitation and 1958 sentenced to prison in calendar 2011. Logistic regression models were built to estimate the effect of sentencing type on unemployment status at 2 years after release. Stratification analysis was conducted to determine the effect of sentencing type based on the offender’s employment status before sentencing. Results Illegal heroin users receiving a prison sentence were more than twice as likely to be unemployed 2 years later than those receiving deferred prosecution. The unemployment rate was also higher for those with observation and rehabilitation and compulsory rehabilitation than deferred prosecution in the 2 years following sentencing. Males, older users, without a job before sentencing, divorced or widowed and higher prior drug use criminal records were also higher risk of unemployment. Subgroup analysis by prior employment status revealed that being sentenced to prison, observation and rehabilitation and compulsory rehabilitation affected the subsequent employment status only for those heroin users with a job before sentencing. The strength of associations showed dose-dependent relationship between different sentencing types (sentenced to prison> compulsory rehabilitation> observation and rehabilitation) and employment outcomes. Conclusions Illegal heroin users who receive a prison sentence have a much higher risk of unemployment than those who receive deferred prosecution after controlling potential confounders, especially those who had a job before sentencing. The implication is the stronger freedom of punishment, the higher risk of unemployment outcomes. Our study support that illegal heroin user is legally regarded as a patient before being regarded as a criminal, so giving priority to quit addition rather than imprisonment.
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    Phloretin ameliorates hepatic steatosis through regulation of lipogenesis and Sirt1/AMPK signaling in obese mice
    ( 2020-09-29) Liou, Chian-Jiun ; Wu, Shu-Ju ; Shen, Szu-Chuan ; Chen, Li-Chen ; Chen, Ya-Ling ; Huang, Wen-Chung
    Abstract Background Phloretin is isolated from apple trees and could increase lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Previous studies have found that phloretin could prevent obesity in mice. In this study, we investigated whether phloretin ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and evaluated the regulation of lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. Methods HepG2 cells were treated with 0.5 mM oleic acid to induce lipid accumulation, and then treated with phloretin to evaluate the molecular mechanism of lipogenesis. In another experiment, male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal diet or HFD (60% fat, w/w) for 16 weeks. After the fourth week, mice were treated with or without phloretin by intraperitoneal injection for 12 weeks. Results Phloretin significantly reduced excessive lipid accumulation and decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, blocking the expression of fatty acid synthase in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells. Phloretin increased Sirt1, and phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase to suppress acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression, reducing fatty acid synthesis in hepatocytes. Phloretin also reduced body weight and fat weight compared to untreated HFD-fed mice. Phloretin also reduced liver weight and liver lipid accumulation and improved hepatocyte steatosis in obese mice. In liver tissue from obese mice, phloretin suppressed transcription factors of lipogenesis and fatty acid synthase, and increased lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, phloretin regulated serum leptin, adiponectin, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acid levels in obese mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that phloretin improves hepatic steatosis by regulating lipogenesis and the Sirt-1/AMPK pathway in the liver.
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    Psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the 7-item game addiction scale (GAS) among Chinese college students
    ( 2020-10-02) Liu, Yujie ; Wang, Qian ; Jou, Min ; Wang, Baohong ; An, Yang ; Li, Zifan
    Abstract Background The 7-item Gaming Addiction Scale (GAS) has been used as a screening tool for addictive game use worldwide, and this study aimed to examine its psychometric properties and measurement invariance among college students in China. Methods Full-time students from multiple colleges in China were recruited. A total of 1040 completed questionnaires were used in the final analysis. Reliability of the GAS was assessed by internal consistency and split-half reliability. Validity of the GAS was assessed by structural validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity. A series of Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MG-CFA) were conducted to test and establish measurement invariance across gender, class standing, family income and parental educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a unidimensional structure of the GAS. The GAS exhibited excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.951, theta coefficient = 0.953, omega coefficient = 0.959) and structural validity (χ2 /df = 0.877 (p < 0.05), CFI = 0.999, TIL = 0.996, RMSEA =0.000). Concurrent validity of the GAS was confirmed by its correlation with problematic internet use, sleep quality, nine dimensions of psychiatric symptoms, and substance use. The GAS also demonstrated measurement invariance across father’s educational level (Δχ2 (df) = 19.128 (12), ΔCFI = − 0.009, ΔRMSEA = 0.010 for weak factorial model; Δχ2 (df) = 50.109 (42), ΔCFI = − 0.010, ΔRMSEA = 0.007 for strict factorial model.) and mother’s educational level (Δχ2 (df) = 6.679 (12), ΔCFI = 0.007, ΔRMSEA = − 0.010 for weak factorial model; Δχ2 (df) =49.131 (42), ΔCFI = − 0.009, ΔRMSEA = − 0.004 for strict factorial model), as well as partial measurement invariance across gender (except for item 2), class standing (except for item 7) and family income (except for item 5). Conclusions The Chinese version of the 7-item GAS can be an adequate assessment tool to assess internet gaming disorder among the college student population in China.
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    A network approach to investigating the key microbes and stability of gut microbial communities in a mouse neuropathic pain model
    ( 2020-09-30) Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie ; Shaw, Grace T ; Chen, Wei-Hsin ; Chen, Chien-Chang ; Wang, Daryi
    Abstract Background Neuropathic pain is an abnormally increased sensitivity to pain, especially from mechanical or thermal stimuli. To date, the current pharmacological treatments for neuropathic pain are still unsatisfactory. The gut microbiota reportedly plays important roles in inducing neuropathic pain, so probiotics have also been used to treat it. However, the underlying questions around the interactions in and stability of the gut microbiota in a spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain model and the key microbes (i.e., the microbes that play critical roles) involved have not been answered. We collected 66 fecal samples over 2 weeks (three mice and 11 time points in spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and Sham groups). The 16S rRNA gene was polymerase chain reaction amplified, sequenced on a MiSeq platform, and analyzed using a MOTHUR- UPARSE pipeline. Results Here we show that spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain alters gut microbial diversity in mice. We successfully constructed reliable microbial interaction networks using the Metagenomic Microbial Interaction Simulator (MetaMIS) and analyzed these networks based on 177,147 simulations. Interestingly, at a higher resolution, our results showed that spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain altered both the stability of the microbial community and the key microbes in a gut micro-ecosystem. Oscillospira, which was classified as a low-abundance and core microbe, was identified as the key microbe in the Sham group, whereas Staphylococcus, classified as a rare and non-core microbe, was identified as the key microbe in the spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain group. Conclusions In summary, our results provide novel experimental evidence that spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain reshapes gut microbial diversity, and alters the stability and key microbes in the gut.