從事勞工健康服務護理人員工作壓力、工作滿意度與幸福感之研究

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2022

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勞工健康服務護理人員 (通稱職護) 為職場健康照護主要執行者。自1976年頒布《勞工健康保護規則》,國內開始有職護專職專任受聘於大型企業/作業高風險企業,主要健康照護業務為健康檢查結果分析管理及職業傷害/疾病管理。隨者時代變遷,國內少子化、人口高齡化、產業結構改變、工作者普遍高工時、工作負荷壓力…等等衍生出諸多新興職場健康風險,職場健康管理內容更為多元。為強化職場健康照護質量並與國際健康照護政策接軌,法規歷經多次調整,於2018 ~2022年採三階段開始施行,將健康照護人數含括到300人以下50人以上職場,規範職場需聘僱或特約職護辦理臨場健康服務。於此正式開啟職護的新興工作模式,特約職護一職。本研究是以曾任或現任從事勞工健康服務之職護 (專任/特約) 為研究對象,探討:(1) 職護工作壓力、工作滿意度及幸福感之現況;(2) 不同職護背景變項在工作壓力、工作滿意度及幸福感之差異;(3) 職護之工作壓力、工作滿意度、幸福感之相關。問卷以橫斷式調查共計246份有效問卷,運用SPSS 23.0軟體進行敘述性統計、單因子變異數及皮爾森積差相關等統計分析。研究結果顯示:(1) 職護工作壓力、工作滿意度、幸福感為中等程度;(2) 專職特約職護之工作控制顯著高於專任職護及兼任特約職護、專職特約職護之工作滿意顯著高於專任職護及兼任特約職護、兼任特約職護之工作滿意顯著高於專任職護、兼任特約職護之幸福感顯著高於專任職護;(3) 工作控制與工作滿意度呈顯著正相關;(4) 工作心理負荷與工作滿意度無顯著相關;(5) 工作滿意度與幸福感呈顯著正相關;(6) 工作心理負荷與幸福感呈顯著負相關。期望經由本研究能提供職護或即將進入特約職護工作者,對臨場健康服務工作之工作壓力、工作滿意度及幸福感有更深入認知。關鍵詞:特約職護、臨場健康服務、工作控制、工作心理負荷
Occupational Health Nurses are the main practitioners of workplace healthcare. Since the promulgation of the"Regulations of the Labor Health Protection" in 1976, there have been full-time occupational health nurses employed in large enterprises/ high-risk businesses in Taiwan. The main healthcare responsibilities are the analysis and management of health examination results, and occupational injury/disease management. With the changes of the times, the declining birthrate in Taiwan, the aging population, the change of industrial structure, the high working hours of general workers, the pressure of workload, etc. have resulted in many new health risks at the workplace, and the duties of workplace health management has become more diverse. In order to improve the quality of workplace healthcare and be in line with international healthcare policies, the regulations have undergone several adjustments and been implemented in three phases from 2018 to 2022, to include healthcare workers in the workplace with 50 to 300 workers, and make sure to hire full-time nurses or contract nurses to provide on-site health services.Since then, a new type of working model of occupational health nurses have developed, that is the contract occupational health nurses. The participants of this study are occupational health nurses (full-time/contract) who have been or are currently providing labor health services, and the purpose is to explore: (1) The job stress, job satisfaction and well-being among occupational health nurses; (2) The influences of different backgrounds of occupational health nurses on the differences in job stress, job satisfaction and well-being; (3) Correlation of job stress, job satisfaction and well-being among occupational health nurses. The questionnaire is a cross-sectional survey with a total of 246 valid questionnaires. SPSS 23.0 software is used to conduct statistical analysis such as descriptive statistics, One-way ANOVA and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient. The Maximum value of correlation in background data is: female, aged 31 to 40 years old, married, have children, bachelor degree (including two-year technical program) (the highest degree in nursing education), employing entity (enterprise), salary between 31 to 40 K, non-management position, job tenure 0 to 5 years.The research results show that: (1) the job pressure, job satisfaction, and well-being among occupational health nurses are at a moderate level; (2) the job control of full-time contract occupational health nurses is significantly higher than that of full-time occupational health nurses and part-time contract occupational health nurses. The job satisfaction of full-time contract occupational health nurses is significantly higher than that of full-time and part-time contract nurses, the job satisfaction of part-time contract nurses is significantly higher than that of full-time occupational health nurses. The well-being of part-time contract nurses is significantly higher than that of full-time occupational health nurses; (3) there is a significant positive correlation between job control and job satisfaction; (4) there is no significant correlation between mental psychosocial job demands and job satisfaction; (5) there is a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and well-being; (6) there is a satisfaction negative correlation between mental psychosocial job demands and well-being. It is expected that through this research, occupational health nurses or people who are plan to be occupational health nurse will have a deeper understanding of job stress, job satisfaction and well-being in occupational health services jobs.Key words: occupational health nurses, occupational health services, job control, job satisfaction

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特約職護, 臨場健康服務, 工作控制, 工作心理負荷, occupational health nurses, occupational health services, job control, job satisfaction

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