臺灣積體電路設計產業在全球之空間互補與區位優勢 The Spatial Complement and Regional Advantages of Taiwan Integrated Circuit Design Industry in the World

Date
2011
Authors
沈玲君
Ling-Jun, Shen
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Abstract
積體電路設計產業在臺灣究竟有什麼地方優勢,引起全球廣泛的興趣,本文利用路徑依賴與互補性,探討該產業在全球的空間互補與區位優勢。路徑依賴強調經濟活動會受到時間與空間的限制,並且建立在一定的基礎條件上。互補則探討透過公司或產業高度整合相關產品、市場與客戶關係,擁有內部彈性、人才庫及密集的市場資訊優勢,提高交易透明度,藉由穿越此互補的區位,能降低交易成本並提高不同區域間交流效率。研究透過第二手資料蒐集,以及針對25位積體電路設計產業從業人員進行深度訪談。研究結果顯示,1960年代加工出口區奠定工業的基礎,1970年代由於能源危機引發政府積極發展產業升級,而展開積體電路產業的培植,1990年代受益於歸國學人的連結。沿著電子產業發展的路徑,臺灣分別與矽谷、大陸、歐洲、日本等幾個重要又不同的區域形成交集,臺灣北部能將這幾個區域的客戶串連在一起,提供多樣的產品與服務,以因應不同市場的需求,同時吸引不同性質的勞動力聚集,而形成重要人才庫。匯集上下游相關廠商與客戶的臺灣,市場資訊流動快速,能提高市場資訊透明度及產品與服務的供應效率。臺灣參與全球積體電路產品與市場的整合,繼續為全球重要積體電路產品設計與生產的中心之一。
Is there any local advantage of integrated circuit design (IC design) industry which locates in Taiwan? It catches a lot of attentions in the world. The paper is to discuss about the spatial complement and regional advantages of the industry in the world by using theories of ‘path dependence’, and ‘complement’. Path dependence is the concept to emphasize that economic activities will be constrained by history and space, and derive from certain legacies. Complement is the discussion about firms or an industry that highly integrate products, markets and customer relationships to have more internal flexibilities, larger labor pool and intensive information of dynamic market. Therefore they can increase accountability and get greater transparency. They will decrease the transaction cost and increase the communication efficiency among different locations by going through the complement space. The information in this study was gathered from public news and interviews with 25 people working in the IC design institutions and relative companies, and the study results show that the foundation of export processing zone in 1960s is the base of the industry development. The governments decided to upgrade the labor intensive industry to the capital and technological intensive industry because of the energy crisis in 1970s. And then began some big projects to develop the IC industry. In 1990s, many technical staffs who studied abroad returned Taiwan. They linked technologies from Silicon Valley with social network in Taiwan. By passing path of the electronics industry, there were multiple relationships between Taiwan and different areas, such as USA, Japan, Europe, and China. Combining different customers in north Taiwan, the IC design industry offers products and services for variant demands for different markets. Meanwhile, the economic activities attracted many talented people so they came here to work and become a multiple and various labor pool. The upstream and downstream of the industry cluster here in Taiwan then made it easier to exchange information within internal or external of companies. It also increased the accountability, brought greater transparency of the market, and boost the efficiency of providing products and services. Taiwan has been participating the integration of IC design industry and markets in the world, it will still be one of the important IC design centers in the world.
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Keywords
積體電路設計產業, 路徑依賴, 空間互補, IC design industry, path dependence, spatial complements
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