從新自由主義式的工作倫理中學習---迷字幕製作的勞動與工作 Learning from Neoliberal Work Ethics--- Fansubbing as Labor and Work

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從新自由主義式的工作倫理中學習: 迷字幕製作的勞動與工作 迷字幕製作崛起成為一特殊的文化現象主要原因,是由於盛行的網路、相關電腦軟 體/技術以及新形式的數位傳播與資訊散佈/流通。全世界廣泛流行的線上迷字幕製作 論壇,如雨後春筍般的興盛,引發了有關勞動與工作如何地包含於迷的活動狀態中的問 題。此研究提案,是延續我前次獲補助國科會研究提案,針對中國的BT 論壇文化的研 究的部份研究成果,計畫實行一個進階的比較研究:重心將放在比較中國與美國的動畫 迷字幕製作。 先前的研究結果指出,新自由主義式的工作倫理的特質:競爭、紀律、效率、團體 合作,與自我培養訓練,似乎在為日劇與美電視劇做字幕的中國字幕組裡,有了極佳的 發展。而大多數字幕組的成員都是都市年輕人,不是大學/研究所學生,就是大學/研 究所畢業生菁英。儘管事實上迷字幕製作,不像新自由主義一般,並不並具有服務商業 利益的目的,我們可視迷字幕製作為一個徵兆,顯現出新自由主義的邏輯不只宰制了正 式的工作社會與資本主義市場,也施使了權力影響了消費競技場中業餘的迷生產。 然而,以上所指的觀察可能並不足夠解釋是否此於中國字幕組中所形成的新自由主 義式的工作倫理,也許跟特別跟中國目前是一個新興崛起,充滿野心與市場機制的國 家,此一更廣大的脈絡有關。因此,此研究提案提出中國與美國的動畫迷字幕製作可以 成為新的研究對象,有助於捕捉不同字幕組於不同國家(例如美國與中國),以及不同 媒體類型的影音產品(例如電視劇與動畫)之間具有相同性或相異性的複雜動態。例如: 美國動漫字幕組,以西方的姿態呈現,如何形成跨國的想像慾望日本應該也是一個有趣 的值得開發的議題。 其他有潛力的影響因素我想探討的是otaku(御宅族),此一詞通常指稱動漫迷負面 的形象,尤其是那些自我封閉與有反社會傾向的,過度沈溺於虛擬世界的動漫迷。挑戰 傳統對御宅族貶抑的刻板印象,我認為重要的是,是否御宅族作為一種文化意義製造的 過程,有可能成為某種生活風格與自我認同,被收編至動畫迷製作裡。為不使日本因它 是世界的動畫的生產中心而有特權成為唯一的學術牙研究焦點,本研究希望開啟新的空 間,並貢獻於跨文化與歷史性的瞭解全球化下的日本動畫迷文化。
Learning from NeoliberalWork Ethics: Fansubbing as Labor andWork Fansubbing emerges as a specific cultural phenomenon reinforced by the prevalence of Internet and related computer software/skills, as well as the new style of digital communication and information distribution/circulation. The boom of online fansubbing forums worldwide evokes the questions about the way in which labor and work is involved in fandom. Partly as the continuous study of my previous research on the BT forum culture in China, this research project plans to conduct an advanced comparative study on anime fansubbing in America and in China. As the previous research result indicates, the traits of neoliberal work ethics characterized by competition, discipline, efficiency, teamwork, and self-cultivation seem to be well-developed in Chinese subtitle groups for Japanese TV drama and American TV series in which most fansubbers are young urbanites who are either undergraduate/graduate students or university graduates. Despite the fact that fansubbing does not serve the aim of any corporate interests as neoliberalism does, it could be seen as a sign revealing that the neoliberal logic not only dominates the formal work society and capitalist market, but also exerts the power on the consumption arena of amateur fan production. However, the observation shown above may not be adequate enough to explain whether such neoliberal work ethics embedded in Chinese fansubbing might be grounded in a wider context which is in particular related to China’s current situation as a rising nation driven by ambition and market mechanism. Thus, this research proposal proposes anime fansubbing in America and China could become new research object, which will be helpful to grasp the complicated dynamics of the similarities and differences among different fansubbing groups in different national context, such as America and China, and even different media genres of audio-visual products, such as TV drama and anime. For example, it would be an interesting issue to explore howAmerican anime fansubbing groups with its Western gesture to generate transnational imaginary and to desire Japan. The other potential influential factor I want to explore is otaku, a term generally indicates the negative images of anime/manga fans, who are self-closed, even anti-social, and excessively indulgent in the virtual world. Challenging the conventional debased stereotype of otaku, I will argue that it is curious to know whether the process of cultural meaning-making may become a life style and self-identity incorporated into anime fansubbing. Without privileging Japan, the world’s production center of anime, as the exclusive spotlight, this research hopes to open up new spaces and contribute to the cross-cultural and historical understandings of the globalizing Japanese anime fan cultures.