探討高齡者從事最低劑量身體活動與肌肉力量與平衡能力之縱貫性研究 Prospective Association between Minimum Amount of Physical Activity with Subsequent Muscle Strength and Balance in Older Adults

Date
2020
Authors
李元瑜
Li, Yuan Yu
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Abstract
研究目的:高齡者從事最低劑量的中高強度身體活動,是否能維持或提升其身體功能表現仍然需要進一步的探討;因此,本研究目的為探討高齡者從事每日15分鐘的中高強度身體活動與12個月後續追蹤的肌肉力量和平衡能力變化之關聯性。研究方法:本研究招募居住在社區且具獨立行走能力之高齡者參與本次調查,共有89名高齡者(平均年齡:69.5 ± 4.88歲)完整參與基線測量 (2018年) 及12個月後的追蹤調查 (2019年)。研究工具包括運用三軸加速規(GT3X+ ActiGraph)測量之中高強度身體活動量、以「握力計」測量之上肢肌力表現、「計時五次坐站」測量之下肢肌力表現、以及「開眼單足站立」所測量之平衡能力。本研究將上肢肌力、下肢肌力與平衡能力基線測量數值與後續追蹤數值相減,並進一步將變化區分為「維持/提升」及「下降」;身體活動量則區分為「有達到」及「未達到」每日15分鐘中高強度身體活動;據此,本研究運用邏輯斯迴歸進行統計分析。研究結果發現,研究對象中,共有65.2%的高齡者每天至少進行15分鐘的中高強度身體活動。在調整社會人口學變項與潛在干擾因子後,根據在基線調查時,有達到每日15分鐘中高強度身體活動之高齡者,在12個月後續追蹤調查 (2019)時,有較高的可能性能維持/提升其平衡能力(勝算比=8.12; 95%信賴區間=1.61, 40.97; p值= 0.01)。而高齡者每日達到15分鐘中高強度身體活動量與否,與上肢及下肢肌力變化並無顯著相關。研究結論:本研究發現高齡者每日從事15分鐘的中高強度身體活動,有助於其維持/提升其平衡表現。此研究結果可提供有關單位進行高齡者健康促進活動規劃設計之參考,期待能藉此來維持或提升高齡者之身體平衡能力。
Purpose: Whether a minimum amount of physical activity is beneficial for maintaining and improving physical function in older adults is unclear. Therefore, this study explored the association between 15 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and subsequent muscle strength and balance in older adults. Methods: Data on community-dwelling older Taiwanese adults (N=89, mean age: 69.5 years ± 4.88) were collected during the baseline period (2018) and through a 12-month follow-up survey (2019). Time spent for MVPA was objectively assessed using a triaxial accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3x-BT) during baseline. Upper and lower limb muscle strength was measured through handgrip strength and five-times sit-to-stand test, respectively. Balance was measured with a one-leg standing test. The 12-month variations in muscle strength and balance were calculated by subtracting the follow-up data from the baseline data (categorized as maintenance/improvement and decline). Forced entry adjusted logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between achieving 15 minutes of MVPA in the baseline period and changes in muscle strength and balance. Results: In total, 65.2% of participants engaged in at least 15 minutes of MVPA per day in the baseline survey. After adjustment for sociodemographic variables and potential confounders, older adults who achieved 15 minutes of MVPA per day during the baseline period were more likely to maintain or improve balance performance (odds ratio: 8.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.61, 40.97; p-value: 0.01). No significant associations were observed between the minimum amount of physical activity and upper and lower limb muscle strength. Conclusion: This study observed that 15 minutes of MVPA per day could be beneficial for older adults’ subsequent performance of balance. Accordingly, these results can be applied for developing future strategies of health promotion for older adults to maintain and improve body functional ability in balance.
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Keywords
三軸加速規, 客觀測量身體活動, 身體功能表現, 高齡者, 中高強度身體活動, triaxial accelerometer, objectively-measured physical activity, physical function, elders
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