Dewey 良師論與職前師培課程主張評析

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National Taiwan Normal University


本研究旨在探討與評論J. Dewey 對於良師及如何以職前師培課程養成如此良師的看法。研究者進入有關文獻,理解其內涵、探討其意蘊,並評析其主張,藉以獲致啟示。在說明研究緣起、文獻回顧與研究問題後,本研究先由三方面解析其良師論,再據以說明其職前師培課程的理念與作法。隨後,研究者在評析Dewey 主張的特點與可資商榷之處後指出,時下良師除應教導學生運用思考方法解決各種問題之外,尚須引領學生妥予面對難以解決的人生困境;而執事者有鑑於過往職前師培課程內涵有偏重理論層面之虞,乃有轉而加強實務層面的趨勢,但應注意切勿矯枉過正,輕忽了確能適切引導實務改進的理論。
This paper critically analyzes J. Dewey’s thoughts on good teachers and preservice teacher education programs. The content, meanings, and theories of Dewey’s thoughts are reviewed from his writings and related literature to determine their implications. After explaining the background and primary research tasks, this paper explains Dewey’s thoughts on good teachers in three dimensions. Subsequently, his ideas and approaches concerning preservice teacher education programs are delineated. By describing the features and points of Dewey’s thoughts that require reconsideration, the findings show that, at present, good teachers should teach students not only how to perform problem solving, but also how to address challenges caused by unsolved predicaments. Furthermore, the author suggests that in preservice teacher education programs, teacher educators should not overemphasize practice and dismiss theories. Although theories have been overvalued in the past, they should still be used to guide teachers’ practices while teachers attempt to improve their teaching competence.