The Trajectory of Cultural Taste: Influence of Intergenerational Educational and Class Mobility on Cultural Taste

Chih-Chia Chuang, Da-Sen Lin
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National Taiwan Normal University
在過去的20 年間,臺灣經歷明顯的產業調整和社會轉型。但很少有研究從社會變遷的脈絡去瞭解文化品味與社會流動的關係。本研究以Bourdieu 對生存心態、文化品味和社會經歷軌跡的討論作為理論基礎,使用1997 年和2007 年施測的《台灣地區社會變遷基本調查》去探討臺灣社會的文化品味變遷及代間社會流動對文化品味的影響。研究發現,1997 年和2007年的文化消費行為都是以文化品味的多樣性為主要的特質,而非Bourdieu 的秀異邏輯。子代的教育是影響個人文化品味多樣性的最主要因素,其次才是客觀階級。本文的研究結果也支持社會流動軌跡會影響文化品味多樣性的論點。代間的教育和階級流動軌跡是形塑文化品味多樣性的重要因素。代間階級向上流動者比非向上流動者有更多樣化的文化品味,而且向上流動的跨階數與文化品味多樣性呈正向顯著相關。代間教育向上流動者或向上流動跨階數愈多者都比再製父代教育位階者的文化品味更多樣化。但一個值得注意的現象是,代間教育向下流動者的文化品味多樣性也明顯高於未流動者,這個情形與階級向下流動者不同。因此,代間的教育和階級流動軌跡對於文化品味多樣性的影響作用並不全然一致。
Over the past two decades, Taiwan has undergone considerable industrial and social transformation. However, few studies have examined the relationship between cultural taste and social mobility from the perspective of social change. This study adopted Bourdieu’s perspectives on habitus, cultural taste, and social trajectory as the theoretical framework and used the 1997 and 2007 data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey to investigate the effects of changes in cultural taste influenced by intergenerational social mobility. The results show that an extensive variety of cultural taste permeated cultural consumption behaviors in both survey years, a finding that contradicts the logic of class distinction proposed by Bourdieu; cultural taste can be used to effectively distinguish groups according to educational level and social class. In addition, the results of this study support the argument that social mobility trajectories affect cultural taste variety. The trajectories of intergenerational educational and class mobility were the key factors shaping variety in cultural taste. People whose class had been elevated intergenerationally exhibited more diverse cultural tastes than did those without upward mobility. Moreover, the number of strata crossed through upward mobility is positively and significantly related to cultural taste variety; people who experienced intergenerational educational upward mobility and those who crossed more strata through upward mobility exhibited greater variety in cultural taste than did those whose educational level was identical to that of their fathers. However, notably, people who experienced intergenerational downward educational mobility also exhibited greater variety in cultural taste than did those with no mobility. This observation deviates from observations among people who experienced downward mobility in class. Therefore, the trajectories of intergenerational educational and class mobility differ in their influences on cultural