餐廳內擁擠程度對消費者知覺價值與消費意願之影響

Abstract

隨著台灣餐飲業的興起,愈來愈多業者加入這個市場,也造成餐飲業市場競爭激烈。傳統的經營模式已無法滿足消費者的需求,價格不再決定一切,消費者更注重的是餐廳內的環境、員工的服務、品牌的體驗、產品的創意等。而擁擠亦屬於餐廳內環境的一部分,故本研究主目的為探討餐廳內擁擠程度對消費者消費意願所產生的影響。 本研究根據文獻建立一套理論模式,其中選擇、社會密度與時間限制為自變項;知覺人擁擠、知覺控制與知覺價值為中介變項,以及擁擠容忍度為知覺人擁擠與知覺價值間的調節變項;消費意願為最後主要測量的應變項。研究方法採用角色扮演情境法與3×2×2因子設計的實驗研究法,研究樣本為493位國立師範大學的大學生,所蒐集來的資料利用SPSS 12.0與AMOS 6.0套裝軟體進行各項分析。本研究分析結果如下: 一、選擇與知覺控制會正向影響知覺人擁擠。 二、社會密度會負向影響知覺人擁擠。 三、社會密度與時間限制會負向影響知覺控制。 四、知覺人擁擠與知覺控制會正向影響知覺價值。 五、知覺人擁擠、知覺控制與知覺價值均會正向影響消費意願。 此外未如預期的結果尚有,選擇對知覺控制及時間限制對知覺人擁擠的正向影響均未達顯著;擁擠容忍度不能調節知覺人擁擠對知覺價值的影響。本研究具有許多的研究意涵,故可讓餐廳的經營者在設計行銷方案時,研擬出有效影響消費者消費意願的方案。
As the hospitality industry raises in Taiwan, there are more and more business entities entering into this market, and the competition gets more intense at the same time. The traditional mode of merchandising has not been able to satisfy customers. The lower prices of products do not reflect the higher sales anymore. What customers emphasize now are the environment of the restaurant, the service of employees, the experience of brands, the originality of products, etc. And crowding is one of them in the environment of restaurants. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the level of crowding affects customers' purchase intention. The model established in this study is based on past researches. Independent variables of this study include choice, social density, and time limit. Intervening variables contain perceived human crowding , perceived control, and perceived value. Tolerance for crowding is the moderating variable of perceived human crowding and perceived value. Finally, purchase intention would be measured primarily as the dependent variable. Research method adopted role-playing scenario technique and a 3×2×2 factorial design of laboratory experience. 493 student subjects from National Taiwan Normal University. The data were then analyzed through SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 6.0. The results are as follows: choice and perceived control positively affect perceived human crowding; social density negatively affects perceived human crowding; social density and time limit negatively affect perceived control; perceived human crowding and perceived control positively affect perceived value. perceived human crowding, perceived control and perceived value positively affect purchase intention. The unexpected findings obtained in this study are the positive effect of choice to perceived control and time limit to perceived human crowding were not significant. And the effect of perceived human crowding to perceived value can’t be moderated by personal tolerance for crowding. This research has many implications for marketing. It can help the restaurant mangers develop more effective marketing programs to affect consumers’ purchase intention.

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Keywords

社會密度, 知覺人擁擠, 知覺控制, 知覺價值, 消費意願, social density, perceived human crowding, perceived control, perceived value, purchase intention

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