從教師認知、教學資源與教學實踐論國語文教育政策之困境與契機

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2020-03-??

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國立臺灣師範大學
National Taiwan Normal University

Abstract

本研究以12 名中學國語文教師為研究對象,就教師認知、教學資源與教學實踐三個面向,進行結構化深度訪談,將所得資料轉譯為口語報告,再進行編碼與歸類分析。期透過教育理想與教育現場兩方對話,對語文教育政策之落實現況更深入理解,並據此提出國語文教育的政策建議。本研究結果顯示:一、教師最關注教師專業,具備高省思與評鑑能力,期待專業成長,盼望將所學轉化運用於課室。不過,教育單位提供的精進課程未能符合需求,在進行時也欠缺適當配套措施,且未能有足夠時間讓教師轉化所學,影響落實的成效。二、國語文課綱揭示的素養有關概念已內化為教師認知,但高層次概念較少被提及。三、各校硬體資源分配不平均,教學運用上仍可再精進。教學文本趨精美多元,但選文未符整體性、脈絡化與多元化,且教師對教材有較大依賴性,少數自編教材亦較少納入核心素養。四、現場教學活動多元,趨向學習者中心。但學生能力、評量與家長期待等因素,影響新式教學的落實。綜上,本研究對國語文教育建議如下:一、植基於教師專業知能與專業成長期待,規劃精進課程,提供課務協助有關配套措施,並培養轉化能力。二、將教師教學想像與更高層次的課綱目標連結,以有效落實課綱精神。三、善用教師的專業與教學經驗,改善教科書選文,同時鼓勵教師教材編撰,使其更系統、多元,符合學生經驗與課綱精神。四、將課綱揭示的高層次能力與評量結合,使教學朝向政策目標,同時增加素養教學意義之社會宣導,以協助教師更順利達成素養教學的目標。
Structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 junior-high school Mandarin teachers toexplore their opinions regarding three dimensions of Mandarin Education Policy-teacheracknowledgment, resources, and practices. The obtained data were first transcribed into verbalprotocol, and classification and analysis were subsequently conducted according to a coding schema.Through discussion of the concepts and situation of Mandarin education, in-depth insight wasobtained about the policy’s implementation. Based on the obtained insights, recommendations areproposed for the future Mandarin Education Policy.The study results revealed the following: First, teachers were most concerned about theirprofessional development, demonstrating their strong abilities of reflection and evaluation,anticipation of professional growth, and goal of translating theory into practice. However, accordingto teachers, the in-service training provided by existing educational institutes is unsatisfactory,involves inadequate follow-up evaluations, and provides insufficient time for practice. These factorsinfluence the policy’s effectiveness. Second, the concepts related to literacy presented in theMandarin curricula were internalized within teachers’ schema, but high-level literacy concepts wererarely mentioned in their reports. Third, the distribution of hardware among schools was reported to be unequal and thus can be improved. Teachers reported that the curriculum textbooks are refinedand diverse but fail to form a systematic framework. Finally, teachers claimed that teaching activitiesare diverse and oriented toward a learner-centered teaching method. However, differences in theabilities of students, assessments, expectations of parents influence their teaching.Based on the above observations, suggestions are presented for framing future policiespertaining to Mandarin education: First, in-service training courses should be based on theprofessional knowledge and growth expectations of teachers. Moreover, a habit of implementingtheory into practical scenarios should be cultivated. Second, teachers should be encouraged to bemore creative and undertake courses more closely related to the high level objectives of the curricula.Third, the Mandarin literature expertise and teaching experience of teachers should be utilized toimprove textbook selection and compiling. Thus, the texts could be more relevant, diverse, andappropriate for students’ experiences. Finally, the high-level literacy abilities that are aims of thecurricula should be incorporated into teaching materials and assessment, and promoted amongparents to gain more support.

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