以卡牌為基礎的多感官學習模式之設計:擴增實境、桌遊與統整反思

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2021

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現今為資訊爆炸的時代,教學過程中的知識概念因其抽象與複雜特性,導致學習者要建立脈絡的過程變得困難,甚至可能影響學習興趣與動機。近年來,教學設計上結合了更多元的資訊呈現方式。然而這些研究大多強調單一面向,例如擴增實境工具強調視覺表徵,遊戲化工具強調動手操作,小組討論工具強調口說表達與聆聽。近年來,跨媒體的設計越來越多,學習活動已經從單一面向,轉變為多面向的設計。因此,本研究提出一「多感官學習模式」,並以桌遊卡牌為基礎,從認知、情意、統整反思三個面向,強調視覺、觸覺、聽覺與口說的結合。具體而言,在系統實作上,本研究以擴增實境科技輔助視覺表徵,建立基礎認知;以桌遊動手操作知識內容,維持學習動機與興趣;以同儕討論強化知識整合,促進形成統整反思策略,期望能透過多感官的學習體驗,提升學習成效並建立良好的動機。為了評估上述「多感官學習模式」的影響,本研究以「臺北高校」歷史知識做為學習內容,探討以下三個研究問題:(1)在此模式下是否可以提升學習成效;(2)在此模式下是否可以建立良好學習動機;(3)此模式下學習者的成效與動機之群集分析為何。研究對象為臺北市某大學學生25人,參與七十分鐘的活動,依序參與AR卡牌探究、小組桌遊、同儕統整反思,並以分群技術,透過先備知識(前測成績)、學習成就(後測成績)、學習動機(注意、關聯、信心、滿足)分群,探討此「多感官學習模式」帶來的影響。研究結果顯示:(1)學習成效在活動結束後有顯著提升;(2)參與者也維持中等學習動機;(3)群集分析方面,結果顯示學習者大致可以分為三組:其一、「低先備中動機組」人數最多,其特性是學習動機中等,學習成就最高,進步幅度也最大;其二、「中先備高動機組」人數次之,其特性是學習動機最高,學習成就中等,進步幅度也為中等;其三、「高先備低動機組」人數最少,其特性是動機偏低,雖然學習成就高,但先備知識高,進步幅度最低。綜合上述研究結果,結合AR、桌遊與同儕討論的「多感官學習模式」有助於提升學習成效與動機,且似乎更適合低先備知識的學生。
Nowadays, the amount of knowledge is large. The knowledge concepts are related and hierarchical, making the establishment of knowledge concepts difficult. And, it might even affect the motivation and interest of learning. In recent years, the design of learning and teaching provides more diversified information presentation methods. However, these researches are mostly emphasis on single sensory, for example, augmented reality(AR) focus on visual representation, gamified learning tools emphasized hands-on activities, group discussion stands for speaking and listening practice. Nowadays, there are more and more cross-media design, which make the learning activities change from single model to multiple perspectives. Therefore, this study designs a “multi-sensory learning model” based on cards, aim to assist cognitive domain, affective domain and meta-cognition in learning. This model combines augmented reality, board games, and group discussion. With these three, the learning process can be emphasized on the combination of visual input, hands-on and oral output. Through the aim of technology, knowledge can be present in different kinds and provide visual presentations to build basic knowledge. And the board games are able to strengthen the learning motivation through hands-on activities. While peer discussion, integration and reflection make it possible for learners to elaborate knowledge and meta-cognition strategies.To evaluate the influence of the multi-sensory learning model, this study takes the historical knowledge of Taihoku higher school as learning context, discuss the following research questions: (1) Through the multi-sensory learning model, whether the learning effectiveness can be improved; (2) Through the multi-sensory learning model, whether the learning motivation; (3) Analyze the learning modalities of different prior knowledge, through the multi-sensory learning model. The participant of this study are 25 college students in Taipei. In the 70 minutes learning process, learners experienced augmented reality, board game and group discussion in order. And this study discussed the influence of the multi-sensory leaning model with ANOVA and cluster through prior knowledge (pre-test), learning effectiveness (post-test) and ARCS motivation questionnaire.The result indicated that: (1) The learning effectiveness in this learning model is statistically significant. (2) The learning motivation in this learning model is higher than average. (3) Analyze the learning modality, learners can be divided into three groups. First, numbers of learners with low prior knowledge is the most. And they tend to have higher learner learning motivation, get higher score on post-test and progressed the most. Secondly, learners with middle level of prior knowledge tend to get the highest learning motivation, while the learning effectiveness and learning progress is also in medium. Last, learners with higher prior knowledge are very few. The feature is that relatively low in learning motivation. Though learning effectiveness is high , the improvement is low. According to above, the multi-sensory model combining AR, board game and integration can improve learning effectiveness and motivation, and tend to be more suitable for learners who with low prior knowledge.

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擴增實境, 桌遊, 小組討論, 臺北高校, AR, Board game, Integration and reflection, Taihoku

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