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Recency Effect of Verbal Summary Knowledge of Results on Motor Performance and Learning
|Abstract:||動作學習者重複練習一系列動作後，指導者如何透過回饋的實施與其對動作表現的主觀知覺，尚需釐清。本研究旨在探討口語摘要結果獲知的時近效應下，外在與內在訊息對動作表現與學習的影響。36名實驗參加者（21.1 ± 2.3歲）隨機分派至摘要結果獲知反序組、錯誤估計＋摘要結果獲知反序組、或結果獲知100%組；實驗工作為自我配速直臂外展的線性移動工作。獲得期進行84次試作，10分鐘與24小時後各進行12次無KR的立即與延遲保留測驗。研究結果發現：一、獲得期方面：（一）絕對誤差值發現組別×區間的交互作用達顯著差異；（二）改變分數發現無顯著差異；二、保留測驗方面：（一）立即與延遲保留測驗發現三組在立即保留測驗的準確性未達顯著差異；而在錯誤估計值方面，錯誤估計與摘要結果獲知反序組顯著優於摘要結果獲知反序組與結果獲知100%組；（二）錯誤估計與摘要結果獲知反序組在延遲保留測驗的準確性與錯誤估計值皆顯著優於其它兩組。本研究結論：一、口語摘要結果獲知的時近效應下，動作表現的準確性受內在訊息與外在訊息的影響，進步情形則否；二、口語摘要結果獲知的時近效應下，內在訊息對動作學習的準確性和錯誤偵察有正面的影響；以及外在訊息對動作學習的準確性亦有正面的影響。|
It is necessary to clarify how instructors provide the feedback and how feedback perceived subjectively after motor learners repetitively practice a series of movements. This study was designed to examine the impacts of external and internal information on motor performance and learning. Thirty six participants (21.1 � 2.3 years) were randomly assigned into one of the summary knowledge of results (SKR) in reverse order, error estimation and summary knowledge of results (EE + SKR) in reverse order, and knowledge of results (KR) 100% groups. Self-paced linear position was used as experimental task. All participants were practiced 84 trials during the acquisition phase, and 10-min immediate retention and 24-hrs delayed retention tests without KR administration. The performance during acquisition phase showed: (1) Groups � blocks interaction were found significant on AE. (2) The change score was found no significant difference. (3) The data from immediate and delayed retention tests showed no significant difference among three groups on AE in immediate retention test, while error estimation in EE + SKR in reverse order group was found significantly higher than that of SKR in reverse order and KR100% groups. Conversely, significant difference was found among three groups on AE and EE in delayed retention tests, and EE + SKR in reverse order was significantly higher EE than that of SKR in reverse order and KR100% groups. These findings suggested that (1) verbal SKR with recency effect was affected by external and internal information on motor performance of movement accuracy, but not in improvement, and (2) verbal SKR with recency effect were facilitated by internal information on motor learning of movement accuracy and error detection, and external information facilitated motor learning of movement accuracy.
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