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Partial Error Reference Benefits Motor Performance and Learning
Purpose: Comparing the effects of the whole and partial error distance references on spatial motor performance and learning. Methods: Twenty four participants were randomly assigned to either whole distance reference or partial distance reference groups, and were requested to practice a spatial task with one-hand. After 60 trials in acquisition phase, a 10-minute immediate retention test and a 24-hour delayed retention test were administered for 12 trials. Participants in whole distance reference group received reference for whole target distance to be a reference after completing the task, however, participants in partial distance reference group received the error distance information only. After receiving reference information, participants had to estimate the error of task before the actual error distance was provided to them. Absolute error (AE), error estimation (EE), and correction error were dependent variable in this study. A 2 (group) x 6 (block) mix-design ANOVA with repeated measure on block, and an independent t-test were used for immediate and delayed retention tests. Results: AE, EE, and correction error scores in partial distance reference group were found significantly less than that of whole distance reference group in both acquisition phase, and immediate and delayed retention test. Conclusions: Guidance with partial distance reference benefits spatial motor performance and learning.
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