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Can Self-Control Facilitate the Benefit of Variable Practice in Older Adults?
|Abstract:||目的：過去研究發現變異的練習情境並未對老年人的動作學習帶來較大的效益，因此本研究結合自我控制的概念與基模理論所演繹的練習變異性假說，旨在探討自我控制對老年人在變異練習動作表現與學習的影響。方法：將36位自願參加的女性老年人（平均年齡71.1 ± 4.5歲）隨機分派至自我控制－變異練習組、無自我控制－變異練習組或恆常練習組，依變項為絕對誤差值與變異誤差值，實驗工作為三段式N字型相對時宜的按鍵工作，經過獲得期90次的試作後，進行10分鐘與一天後各12次的立即與延遲保留測驗。結果：獲得期經3（組別）×9（區間）混合設計二因子變異數分析，其中區間為重複量數，以及最小平方法的事後比較發現，老年人在有無自我控制變異練習的絕對誤差值與變異誤差值未達統計顯著差異，但兩組變異練習的絕對誤差值均大於恆常練習組且達統計顯著差異。立即與延遲保留測驗經單因子變異數分析發現，有無自我控制變異練習的絕對誤差值與變異誤差值未達統計顯著差異，但兩組變異練習的絕對誤差值在立即保留測驗中大於恆常練習組且達統計顯著差異。結論：老年人在變異練習情境的動作表現與學習不受自我控制影響。|
Purpose: Previous studies found that the variable practice condition didn't promote benefits for motor learning in older adults. Therefore, this study combined the concept of self-control with the variability of practice hypothesis, which derived from the Schema theory, to investigate the effects of self-controlled variable practice on motor performance and learning in older adults. Methods: Thirty six female older adults (mean age = 71.1 ± 4.5 years) served as participants, whom were randomly assigned to one of variable practice with self-control group, variable practice without self-control group, and constant practice group. Dependent variables were absolute error and variable error scores. Participants practiced three movement patterns of ”N” shape that had the same relative timing. Each participant practiced 90 trails during acquisition. Ten minutes immediate retention and 24 hours delayed retention tests, which consisted of 12 trails. Results: Mixed-design 3 (group) × 9 (block) ANOVA with repeated measures on block for acquisition and post hoc of LSD indicated that no statistical significance were found on variable practice between with and without self-control in terms of absolute error and variable error scores. But constant practice group was significant less than variable practice groups on absolute error score. One way ANOVA for immediate and delay retentions indicated that no statistical significance were found on variable practice between with and without self-control in terms of absolute error and variable error scores. But constant practice group was significant less than variable practice groups in immediate retention on absolute error score. Conclusions: It is concluded that there is no effect of self-controlled variable practice on motor performance and learning in older adults.
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