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Pre-Current Effects on Basketball Free-Throw Shooting Accuracy
|Abstract:||本研究以第1罰投籃前例行動作視為「前況操作」，第2罰投籃亦同，而第1罰投籃出手結果則為第2罰投籃的「前況結果」，以此時間序列相關的變項為基礎，本研究旨在檢驗不同前況操作與前況結果對籃球罰球投籃準確性的影響。以大專院校籃球聯賽甲一級男子組晉級複、決賽的隊伍為觀察對象，依比賽影帶進行分析，蒐集比賽中發生2次罰球投籃之情況，記錄罰球投籃前所操作的例行動作時間與投籃結果，共計觀察9場賽事中之144次罰球，將第1罰的例行動作時間轉換成z分數，分為「短」、「中」和「長」三種不同前況操作例行動作時間，而以第1次投籃命中結果區分為「命中」與「未中」兩組，以辨識前況結果。對罰球時間變項觀察的評分者間與評分者內信度分別為r =.86以及r =.88。以獨立樣本t考驗和獨立樣本單子變異數分析進行統計分析，結果發現：一、不同前況結果之後續罰球投籃準確性達顯著差異（p ＜.05），命中組投籃準確性高於無命中組；二、不同前況操作之籃球罰球投籃準確性未達顯著差異（p ＞.05）。本研究的結論為：一、前況結果會影響籃球罰球投籃準確性；二、前況操作不會影響籃球罰球投籃準確性。|
In this study, first and second free-throw pre-shot routines were considered as "pre-current operant." The result of the first free-throw shooting was a "pre-current result" for the second free-throw shooting. Based on variables related to time series, this study was designed to examine the effects of pre-current operant and pre-current result on basketball free-throw shooting accuracy. Data were collected during the 2004 UBA Semi-final and Finals games. The videotape observation included 144 times of free-throw in 9 games. The measures included time of pre-shot routine and the number of free-throws made scores by each player in two free-throw shot conditions. The pre-shot interval of free-throw was transformed into z scores and was divided into "short," "medium" and "long" pre-shot intervals. "Hit" or "missed" groups were categoried, according to the result of the first performance of 2 free-throws, in order to define effect of pre-current results. The inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were r = .86 and r = .88. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were utilized to analyze between groups difference. The findings were as follows: 1. for accuracy of free-throw shooting, significant difference was found on pre-current result (p < .05), in that "hit" group was higher than "missed" group; 2. for accuracy of free-throw shooting, no significant difference was found in pre-current operant (p > .05). The conclusions of this study: 1. pre-current result has effect on the accuracy of free-throw shooting, and 2. pre-current operant has no effect on the accuracy of free-throw shooting.
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