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The Reproduction and Release of Gender Frame in Sports Domain
Permanently, the characteristics of competition and masculinities emphasized in sports domain have been constructed and reinforced mutually. Prejudices which Chinese traditional concept "male serves as a breadwinner; female serves as a house-keeper" and which sport is inappropriate for female, resulted in concealing of the significance of social cultural construction by naturalism and inheriting traditional gender stereotypes. These reinforced the connection between masculinity and male, and excluded femininities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how the reproduction of gender structure in sports domain happened and what involved in it, and to find out the possibilities of release was based on gender frame in this process. Elaborating the reproduction-release based on the "structure-agency" in sociology. Sports domain reproduced the gender frame through the gender differentiation of sports categories, sports media, school education, and athlete-related organization, which contained strengthening characteristics of "male-masculinity" and "female-femininity", reproduction of unequal gender, discourse on good looks, heterosexual hegemony and etc. Following the awareness of gender consciousness, the system in sport domain has been released in system level, but it reproduced gender structure in a more indirect and delicate way. Moreover, a gain of patriarchal dividend also supported the reproduction actions. However, we can see the unfolding of agency in female's participation in the basis of reflective-gender conscious raising-action process and from inner self-concept, turning sports into a field changing gender structure.
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