Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/77345300/77990
Title: 戰爭與動物:臺北圓山動物園的社會文化史
Other Titles: War and Animals: A Social Cultural History of the Taipei Zoo in Yuan-shan
Authors: 鄭麗榕
Li-jung Cheng
Issue Date: Dec-2013
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學台灣史研究所
Graduate Institute of Taiwan History
Abstract: 本文主要以第二次世界大戰時臺北圓山動物園的案例,從動物宣傳、動物殺害與動物紀念三個面向,就歷史學的角度,探討戰時與動物相關的宣傳、「猛獸處分」政策以及動物慰靈祭,以呈現戰時動物被國家軍事資源化利用的情形。戰爭時期動物園被納入軍事動員,作為提升官方所欲形塑的「戰爭道德」(war moral)的場所,成為精神動員工具,動物展覽、愛護與追悼都是愛國活動的展演。宣傳上巧妙地透過動物強化軍人家族情感,將前線和後方都聯結在愛國的目標下。猛獸處分政策則顯示動物的犧牲被國家合理化,在戰時食糧有限、空襲陰影下,此一政策甚至可能成為心理戰的工具。動物慰靈祭則是透過儀式,強調動物對人類的貢獻,戰時著重對軍用動物的追悼,戰後則轉化為肯定動物帶給人們的歡樂。在戰爭中,動物的價值被國家重新定義,有助於戰力的動物被珍視、被繁殖,無助於戰爭者則被屠殺處理,對動物的紀念儀式,也是為強化利用的目的而舉行,因此剝削愈多,紀念儀式也舉行愈頻繁。因此可以說,動物也參加了人類的戰事,而人與動物的關係在戰爭時期也被重新改寫與形塑。
This essay, focusing on the Taipei Zoo in Yuan-shan and its role during the World War II, investigates how animals were utilized as military resources by the Japanese empire in wartime by examining animal propaganda, the animal disposal policy, and animal memorial services. Being militarily mobilized during the war period, the zoo became a place to promote the idea of "war moral" which the government attempted to publicize and also a means of spiritual mobilization. Animal exhibitions, protections, or memorials were all considered as patriotic activities. The government skillfully manipulated animal propaganda to reinforce the military's personal emotions toward the empire in order to bind the front line and the rear area tightly for a patriotic purpose. Besides, with enforcing the animal disposal policy, animal sacrifice had been rationalized by the government. Under the shadow of food shortage and air strikes, this policy could be even used as a tool of psychological warfare. As for animal memorial services, animals' contributions to human beings were praised and emphasized through these services. During wartime, they showed the condolences for military animals. In the postwar period, they turned to recall happiness that animals had brought to human beings. Meanings and values of animals were redefined by the government in wartime. Those animals which were beneficial to wars would be cherished with good cares and propagated; however, those worthless ones would be killed instead. Holding animal memorial services was in fact a way to intensify and rationalize these actions. The more animals were exploited, the more services would be held. In other words, animals participated in human warfare as well. Therefore, the relationship between human beings and animals during wartime had been reconsidered and rewritten.
URI: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/handle/77345300/77990
Other Identifiers: FF2D3F16-540F-54F0-1A20-9361E31035CD
Appears in Collections:師大台灣史學報

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