Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/77345300/77986
Title: 日治時期臺灣「細菌檢查」處所發展初探
Other Titles: Preliminary History of 'Bacteriological Laboratories' in Taiwan during the Japanese Ruling Period
Authors: 沈佳姍
Chia-San Shen
Issue Date: Dec-2013
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學台灣史研究所
Graduate Institute of Taiwan History
Abstract: 19世紀後半葉顯微鏡、細菌理論和實驗室的興起和盛行,是一個全球交互影響的過程。此時正值清末和日本治臺時期。各先行研究已多論述細菌學知識在日治臺灣下的應用與推展,但對專門檢驗機構成立與分布的認識不多,而此也是衡量近代衛生、評量細菌學在一地區發展程度的一項重要指標。本文即是研究日治臺灣時期定制式公立細菌檢驗機構的建立過程,論述細菌檢查機構在臺灣的建置時地與特色、使之產生或發生變化的原因,以及從專門機構建置質量的角度呈現細菌學在臺灣的拓展歷程。結果發現,臺灣在1900年前後,已在臺北、基隆、臺中、嘉義等處,因海港檢疫、首都、防疫等原因而設立細菌檢驗室;集中在大臺北地區,業務與防治鼠疫密切相關。1910和1920年代,細菌檢查室所再興起一波改制、建設或擴大規模潮。到1920年代中期前,臺灣西部五州均已設置細菌檢查室所,其中臺北州的規模最大。影響此發展的主因,包括歐洲戰爭後的臺日地方行政制度修改、地方自主權力提升、各種跨國性疫情發生、日本內地的傳染病預防法調整以及頒告廳府縣衛生職員制。1930年代後,細菌檢查室所的建設集中在高雄和東部的宜花東。故從區域來看,細菌檢查單位在臺灣的設置是以北臺灣為重,而後再擴及南臺灣和東臺灣;1930年代前已普及於臺灣東西南北各地。其間,細菌檢驗員有多面向的移動任職或交流,加速了專業技術和知識的流通。建置地點常有官廳等建物內的衛生部兼含細菌檢查室/所與海港檢疫所,甚至再兼藥物或瘧疾檢驗室等等的空間共用和機構群聚現象。
When the microscope, germ theory and laboratories quickly became prevalent in the second half of the 19th century, it was the late Qing dynasty and then the period of Japanese rule over Taiwan. Some studies have discussed how bacteriology arose and was promoted in Taiwan, but we still don't know how the specialized bacteriological laboratories were established and distributed. This is also a major way to assess the level of modern sanitation and development of bacteriology. Therefore, this paper studies the process of establishing the public and fixed positioned bacteriological labs in Japanese-ruled Taiwan, including building locations and timing, changes and reasons therefor, and through this history shows how bacteriology expanded in Taiwan. It was found that: 1. in 1900, labs were established in Taipei, Keelung, Taichung, Chiayi, etc. because of quarantine and for epidemic prevention. They were concentrated in the Taipei area, in part because of its status as the capital city; duties were closely related to plague prevention. 2. In the 1910s and 1920s, the labs underwent a wave of restructuring, construction and amplification. By the mid-1920s, there were labs set up throughout all the western part of Taiwan, with Taipei’s being the largest. The reasons for the changes in the 1920s included modifications to the local administrative system, a variety of international epidemics, and the adjustment of hygiene systems in Japan after the WWII. 3. After 1930, establishment of new labs focused on Kaohsiung and eastern Taiwan like Ilan, Hualien and Taitung. Therefore, the process of establishing examination units in Taiwan began mainly in the northern part, and then spread to the south and east. Labs were widespread throughout the whole of Taiwan by the 1930s. In the meantime, bacteriology experts were often transforming their jobs so as to accelerate the exchange and growth of expertise and knowledge. The labs were often located inside buildings of the Department of He
URI: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/handle/77345300/77986
Other Identifiers: AC68A7F6-F203-E873-E624-67FBCA3A457E
Appears in Collections:師大台灣史學報

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