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The Routes of Promotion and Transfer for Officials in the Jin Dynasty--A Study of the Qualification System "Gefa"
Using the ＂Gefa＂ (qualification system) as a reference point, this article examines the routes of promotion and transfer for officials during the reigns of Shizong and Zhangzong of the Jin Dynasty. Through the contents of ＂Gefa＂, one can observe that officials in the Jin dynasty were recruited in three ways. Firstly, it ranked official positions according to the nature of the appointment, and accordingly established an official ranking system suitable for promotion and transfer. Secondly, through military honours, submission of services, civil service examination, appointment by protection, and clerical appointment, officials were divided into five categories, and their rules for promotion and transfer were set according to these categories. Thirdly, the superiority or inferiority of the promotion and transfer routes was mainly defused at the ceremony of appointment at the respective ministry, a necessary stage for most of the officials in their early days of service. As all officials would have their respective destined appointments, their routes of promotion and transfer were thus categorized and ranked, and so differentiating each of their terms of employment and political rights. Officials therefore would not easily break away from the settings for their prospects. Basically, the promotion and transfer routes during the reigns of Shizong and Zhangzong could be ranked into six grades according to the treatment of the appointees. And the following categories of officials generally would be provided with better promotion opportunities and appointments: appointees promoted from the high level staffs of the Palace Attendants and the central government clerks, the Jinshi (進士) or Wuju (武舉) degree holders, as well as personels with military and service honours.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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