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Cultural Adaptation in the Manchu Families in the Eighteen Century--- Taking the Official Experiences of the Sumuru Family as an Example
|Abstract:||清朝前期滿洲旗員家庭的文化適應：以舒穆祿氏徐元夢、舒赫德祖孫的仕途經歷為例 滿洲入關後，八旗成員在生活領域與族群關係出現變化，以及統治者衡量護衛政權與長治久安 的需要時，面臨文化適應的考驗，他們必須藉由調整思想、行為或技藝等方式，以適應變遷的環境。 在滿、漢文化互動的過程中，旗人逐漸拋棄清語、騎射的技能、喪失民族淳樸的特質固為事實，甚 至沾染若干不良習氣，但也不能忽略仍有部分旗人展現出較佳的文化適應力，故而在仕途中脫穎而 出，獲得皇帝的寵用。在康、雍、乾年間長期任官的正白旗滿洲舒穆祿氏徐元夢、舒赫德祖孫，在 國家政策與家庭教育的交互作用下，清、漢文俱佳，擅長翻譯，且皆躋身高位，也都曾經主持官方 圖書編纂工作，展現深厚的滿、漢文化素養。惟長期擔任康熙皇帝文學侍從的徐元夢，騎射的技能 極為拙劣；在乾隆朝軍功、文學都有表現的舒赫德，卻有背離滿洲淳樸舊俗的問題，顯示二人面對 漢文化有不同的選擇、因應與調適。由於徐元夢、舒赫德的仕途經歷、居官表現、君臣關係，以及 對民族傳統的保持，有異有同，呈現出旗員家庭面對文化適應時的各種面向，可作為個案研究的對 象。因此，本計畫擬將討論的重點集中在：一、旗員子弟的教育與入仕；二、徐元夢的文學侍從生 涯；三、舒赫德亦文亦武的經歷；四、舒穆祿氏家與滿洲傳統，進行比較、分析的研究。|
Cultural Adaptation in the Manchu Families in the Eighteenth Century: Taking the Official Experiences of the Šumuru Family as an Example After the entrance of the Manchu, there are remarkable changes in ordinary lives and the relationships among the members of the eight banners. As the rulers confront the demand of political as well as social stability, they must adjust the ways of thinking, behavior and skills in facing the test of cultural conformity. During the processes of interaction between the Manchu and Han cultures, it is true that the Manchu members gradually abandoned their mother-language, the techniques of riding and shooting, and even lost their naïve characters while contracting some bad hobbies. Yet we should not ignore the fact that there are some Manchu people showing better abilities in the management of culture conformity; therefore, they show distinguished caliber in official career and receive special attention from the emperors. Under the mutual influence of national policies and family education, the grandfather Sioyuwnmeng and grandson Šuhede of the Šumuru Family, as White Banner, could command both Manchu and Chinese fluently and translate documents faithfully. They both occupied high positions in the government and held the official tasks to edit and compile documents during the early Ch’ing dynasty. However, as Sioyuwnmeng, the page of literature with Kansi, was ill at the techniques of riding-shooting, Šuhede, who was both extremely good at military and literature still had the problems against the naïve Manchu tradition. Such a phenomenon shows that these two people had different choices, responses, and adjustments in the confrontation of the Han culture. Because there are certain similarities and dissimilarities between Sioyuwnmeng and Šuhede according to their official careers, performances in cabinet secretary, relationships with emperors, and attitudes in the preservation of tradition, their case deserves further discussions and investigations. Therefore, this study will focus on: first, education and engagement in politics of the Manchu young people; second, Sioyuwnmeng’s career in being a page of literature; third, the civil and military experiences of Šuhede; and the last, comparison and analysis of the Šumuru Familyand Manchu traditions.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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