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Manchu Elite Families and Politics in the Early Ch'ing Dynasty---Case Study of the Guwalgiya Family in Suwan
|Abstract:||滿洲勳舊與清初政治：蘇完地方瓜爾佳家族的個案研究 滿洲政權的建立，係由努爾哈齊家族的宗室王公集團與立有勳績的異姓重臣家族共同組成，官 書稱這些異姓重臣為「勳舊」。勳舊家族往往依附於汗權（皇權），且常與努爾哈齊家族通婚，而躋 身「親貴」之列；家族勢力的起伏，則受到汗權（皇權）與宗室王公的衝突，或家族彼此間競爭的 影響。蘇完地方瓜爾佳家族費英東、鰲拜叔姪兩代，在清初政治史上有其重要性：家族的崛起，最 初「親」與「貴」的身分並不突出，但費英東在政治、軍事上的表現，乃得援引兄弟子姪進入統治 集團。在關外時期的議政政體中，家族成員經常扮演汗權（皇權）的支持者，故能佔有一席之地； 而鰲拜在入關前後的戰功，也提升家族在政權中的地位。在多爾袞攝政─順治皇帝親政階段，由於 宗室王公集團內部的激烈鬥爭，家族的發展一度受到重挫，但其堅持維護皇權的立場，則為家族的 再興保留生機。惟進入四大臣輔政時期，鰲拜乘機攬權，並從政爭的受害者一變而為發動者，對皇 權構成威脅，康熙皇帝則利用其他親貴家族予以制裁。本計畫擬將討論的重點集中在：一、滿洲勳 舊群體的形成及其類型；二、親貴議政體制中的瓜爾佳家族；三、皇權演化與瓜爾佳家族的起伏； 四、輔政體制下勳舊與皇權的衝突，進行比較、分析的研究|
Manchu Elite Families and Politics in the Early Ch’ing Dynasty: Case Study of the Gūwalgiya Family in Suwan The establishment of the Manchu dominance is based on the cooperation of the royal clan of the Nurhacis and other meritorious families of different surnames, who are regarded as “elite” in the official documents. The “elite” families usually attach themselves to the royal power and attempt to marry the Nurhaci family for the purpose to become a member of “kinsman” in the hierarchal system. In addition, the rise and fall of the family power is influenced by the conflict between the royal power and royal clan as well as the competition among family members. The position of the Gūwalgiya family in Suwan, Fiongton and Oboi in particular, are very important in the political history of the early Ch’ing Dynasty. In the beginning, the status of “kinship” and “aristocracy” is rather obscure in the rise of the family. However, the outstanding performance of Fiongton in politics and military affairs is a key point that leads his brothers and nieces toward the dominant group. In the political system before 1644, the family members usually act as the advocates of the royal power, which is also the reason that they are crucial members in politics. On the other hand, the exploits of Oboi during 1644 also elevate the position of the family in the regime. Under the governance of Emperor Shun-chih, while Dorgon acts as a regent, due to the intense conflicts among the royal clans, the development of the family confronts certain difficulties; nevertheless, their insistence on the advocacy of the royal power is the means that leaves the family a chance to prosper again. Yet during the governance of the four regents, Oboi is rather ambitious of gaining the political power, turning himself from a victim to a schemer. Oboi’s behavior threatens the constitution of the royal power, and K’ang-his assigns his royal family the responsibility to deal with such a condition. The projects will focus on the analysis and discussion of 1. formation and type of the Manchu “elite” families, 2. the Gūwalgiya family in thekinsman system, 3. evolution of the royal power, and rise and fall of the Gūwalgiya family, and 4. conflicts between elite and the royal power under the regent system.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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