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May Each Present His Views: An Analysis of the Chinese and Manchu "Itemized Memorials" of 1735
|Abstract:||清雍正十三年(1735年)八月二十三日，雍正皇帝崩殂，乾隆皇帝御極之後，為周知庶務，洞悉利弊，旋於同年九月十九日頒降諭旨，命在京滿、漢文武官員輪班條奏，以為朝廷施政參考。這批主要收藏於臺北國立故宮博物院《宮中檔雍正朝奏摺》的「條陳奏摺」(hacilame wesimbure jedz)，自該年九月二十四日至十二月二十八日的三個月間，由各部院衙門的一九九位官員，進呈三○六件奏摺，其中包括滿文一一九件，漢文一八五件，滿漢合璧二件。就具奏人的身分橋言，以八旗武職人員居多，約佔三分之一強，條奏的主旨自以旗務問題為主；其他官員奏陳的內容，舉凡行政、司法、財賦、文教、吏治諸事，涉及的範圍則頗為廣泛。由於雍正十三年「條陳奏摺」的形成，係起於新於新君即位欲瞭解政情，臣工建白不乏對雍正朝晚期諸多改革措施的檢討；又為除弊興利，所言亦對乾降朝初年的政策走向產生影響，故具有極高的史料價值。|
On October 8, 1735, the Yung-cheng emperor died. Upon assuming the throne, the new emperor Ch’ien-lung, in order to thoroughly understand the state of government affairs and make informed decisions about which policies deserved reconsideration, swiftly promulgated an edict (dated November 3, 1735) which instructed all Manchu and Han civil and military officials to submit memorials in turn for the emperor to refer to while governing. The memorials submitted in response to this command are primarily collected in the “Itemized Memorials” section of the Kung-chung-tang Yung-cheng tsou-che. Over the course of a three month period between November 8, 1735 and February 9, 1736, a total of 306 memorials were submitted by 199 officials representing every government ministry and office. 199 off these memorials were written in Manchu, 185 in Chinese, and two in both Manchu and Chinese. The largest single group of memorialists, representing approximately one third of the total, were military officials attached to the Eight Banners. Their memorials dealt primarily with banner affairs. The remaining memorials addressed a wide array of administrative, legal, fiscal, educational, and personnel matters. Because these memorials were precipitated by the new emperor’s desire to understand the true state of governmental affairs, the memorialsits were quite direct in their assessment of the many reforms enacted during the latter years of the Yung-cheng regin. Furthermore, because the memorials were quite direct in their assessment of the many reforms enacted during the latter years of the Yung-cheng reign. Furthermore, because the memorials were explicitly intended to serve as the basis for making changes in governance, they had dramatic impact on policy direction the early Ch’ien-lung reign. For these reasons, they are a valuable source of historical evidence.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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