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The Formation of Feudal Lordship in the Early Capetian Dynasty
|Abstract:||九世紀中期加洛林帝國解體，面對王國內大貴族勢力的崛起，以及日耳曼國王對洛林地區的覬覦，加洛林國王的處境日益艱難。再者，九到十世紀期間由於修哥卡佩所屬的羅伯家族征戰諾曼人有功，其家族勢力逐漸強大，在西法蘭克王位繼承方面，羅伯家族便經常能夠與加洛林家族輪替；此時羅馬教宗對加洛林家族一貫的支持態度逆轉，導致西元987 年修哥卡佩被貴族推選為法蘭西國王，建立卡佩王朝。 卡佩王朝建立初期王權的行使有限，各公國中已經存在的伯爵、子爵和城堡領主勢力更加強大；由於這些封建領主階層的形成，更加速公權力分散，其中大量出現的城堡領主（le châtelain）是這個時期最顯著的特徵。這一種型態的領主，他們以親王、伯爵或主教的名義來行使公權力，將家族勢力擴張到鄰近地區；同時，他們以軍事徵調權和司法權來管轄附近的農民，他們也逐漸脫離上層政治權力的羈絆而成為自主性的封建領主。另一種型態的領主是透過地產的佔領而形成的地產領主（le seigneur foncier），他們建立城堡或以莊園邸宅作為權力中心，逐漸對附近的農民強力徵收稅捐，將他們納入其控制之中。這兩種型態的領主也以世襲的方式傳承土地和頭銜，長子繼承制逐漸普遍化。除了上述的這些世俗的封建領主之外，十到十二世紀期間，主教和修道院長的權力上升，逐漸成為另一種型態的封建領主。封建領主勢力的形成不僅和法蘭西王權產生互動，這時代所形成的附庸領主的臣屬關係，更成為當時西歐社會主要的政治結構。 擁有軍事徵調權和司法權的封建領主階層之形成，不論是對地方的人民或是對教會、修道院人士都構成威脅，私戰、暴力事件層出不窮。一方面，建立社會新秩序的要求出現在這個時期，最顯著的例子為克魯尼改革和教會倡導「和平運動」；另一方面，從卡佩王朝建立到十二世紀期間，法王除了透過確立長子世襲王位制度、提升王權神聖性之外，更透過加強領主附庸之間的臣屬關係，以及確立國王在法蘭西王國中司法統轄權的至高地位，來增強卡佩王室的權威。本文透過這個時代的實際政治框架和趨勢，來探討封建領主形成的時代背景和意義，以及呈現初期卡佩王朝的王權在封建政治型態中所具有的實際地位。|
After the mid-ninth century, the authority of the Carolingian kings declined rapidly. Faced with the rise of magnates within the country, and the aggressive attempts of the Germanic kings toward Lorraine, the situation facing the Carolingians became ever more difficult. Noteworthy was the rise of the Robert family, to whom Hugh Capet belonged. Thanks to their victories over the Normans, the Robert family often contested the Carolingians in royal successions between the ninth and tenth centuries. Meanwhile, the hostility of Germanic kings toward the Carolingians and the change in the traditional support of the papacy led to the momentous event in 987: under the support of the most influential Archbishop of Reims Adalb廨on, Charles Duke of Lorraine was denied the right of succession, and Hugh Capet succeeded to the throne of France, thus initiating the rule of the Capetian dynasty. During the early Capetian dynasty, due to the extreme limitations of royal authority, the existing power of the dukes, counts, and castellans increased ever more. The rise of these feudal lords accelerated the dispersion of central power; the widespread appearance of the castellans represented a characteristic development of this period. Exercising public authority in the name of dukes, counts, and bishops, these lords extended their familial influence to neighboring areas; at the same time, they used military mobilization and judicial powers to rule over peasants, and gradually freed themselves from political restraints from above, becoming autonomous feudal lords. Another type of lordship was represented by the landed lord. Using castles or manor houses as their centers of power, they exacted taxation from neighboring small landholders, incorporating them under their control. Both types of lordship were passed on by hereditary succession, establishing the tradition of male primogeniture. In addition to these secular lordships, the authority of bishops and abbots also increased between the tenth and twelfth centuries, and gradually consolidated into a third type of feudal lordship. Not only did the formation of feudal lordship develop in reciprocity with French royal power, the articulation of the relationship between lords and vassals constituted the political structure of western Europe. The formation of feudal lordship, with its claim to military mobilization and justice, represented a threat to the local populace, as well as to the church; the numerous acts of violence provoked the popular consciousness for a new social order, leading thus to the Cluniac Reform and the movement of peace under the sponsorship of the Church. At the same time, from the early Capetian reign to the twelfth century, in addition to elevating the sacrality of royal power and establishing male primogeniture, the French monarchy also tried to extend the reputation and authority of the Capetian dynasty, by strengthening lord-vassal relations, in order to establish the highest judicial position of the king within the realm of France. Up to the thirteenth century, the French monarchy succeeded in gaining the highest judicial role in the lord-vassal relations within France, thus providing the background for the gradual expansion of monarchial power. Through exploring the political and social developments of this period, this essay will analyze the formation of feudal lordship and its meaning and historical context in the early Capetian reign.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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