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Narrative Strategies in Travel Writings to North America and Europe: Taiwan Intellectual Elites' Travel Discourses during the Japanese Colonial Period
|Abstract:||體驗異地文化為旅遊目的之一，藉由遠離家園後的感知與跨界經驗的書寫， 表達作者的內在意識及世界觀。目前所見日治時期遠至歐美各國的旅遊書寫極為 有限，這些文本為知識菁英思索並沉澱後的論述，因而別具學術研究的價值。故 以日治時期旅遊多國的顏國年（1886-1937）、杜聰明（1893-1986）與陳炳煌（雞 籠生）（1903─2000）為例，擇取《最近歐美旅行記》、《杜聰明博士世界旅遊記》 與《海外見聞錄》及其他相關作品的歐美見聞為研究文本，探討其跨界行旅敘事 的共性與殊性。從作者學養、文化資本及旅遊動機等出發前的面向，到行程設計、 參觀地景、與當地人的互動等過程，皆呈現旅遊與敘事的密切關聯。尤其旅遊書 寫、影響實踐、文化批判與省思等與回歸後的議題，更隱含知識菁英在離與返之 間的衝擊。主要採文獻研究、文本詮釋並結合田野訪談等質性研究法，梳理作者 於日本殖民下出遊的跨界思維。不僅廣泛蒐集見聞錄的相關史料，如：序文、唱 和集、回憶錄、言論集等；同時，藉由訪談作者的後代及相關人士，以深入理解 外緣背景。透過敘事者所見歐美社會與本地的差異，藉由比較、重溫的省察而理 解本身境遇，因而改變自我的視界。他們關注歐美都會現代性、教育制度的考察、 民主思潮及國民性，流露對於文化差異或觀摩或批判的視角。從這些旅遊見聞錄 分析直敘、參照、比較、批判等表現手法，且詮釋字裡行間的象徵意涵。期望藉 由旅遊見聞錄題材及敘事策略的分析，呈現同處殖民地知識菁英的敘事特色，以 助於釐析台灣日治時期旅遊書寫發展的脈絡。|
One of the purposes of travel is to experience different cultures. A writer reveals in his writing on boundary crossing and feelings of being away from home about consciousness of the mind and broadened perspective of the world. Thus far, travel writings to America and the Europe during the Japanese Colonial Rule are quite limited in number; nevertheless, these writings are discourses of significance and worthy of academic attention for the fact that they are thoughts recollected from the intellectual elites. In this research project, I have chosen three prominent figures’ writings as my primary research materials, which include Yan Guo-Nian (1886-1937), Tu Tsung-Ming (1993-1986), Chen Ping-Huang (commonly known by his pen name Jilongsheng, 1903-2000), and their works Recent Travel Notes from Europe and America, Travel Notes Around the World by Dr. Tu Tsung-Ming, and My Experiences Abroad respectively. I intended to discuss the similarities and differences among these writings about their respective experiences of boundary crossing narratives. Travel and narrative are closely related, and their relations can be discerned from perspectives such as these writers’ intellectual and cultural assets, and their motivations to travel before their departures. Also, these writings are useful for the analyses of their travel itineraries, visits to important landscapes, and cultural criticisms after the returns. Their departures and returns, from their hometown to America and the Europe, are accumulated in their words written in reflection after coming back home and reveal their epiphanies and culture shocks in the process. The methodologies employed in the research include textual analysis and interpretation of important books, and together with interviews and some field researches, in order to contextualize the boundary crossing thoughts of the Taiwanese literati under the Japanese Rule. Furthermore, to have a better understanding of these literati’s experiences and intelligence, I have collected a wide variety of research materials, such as prologues, responsorial collections, memoirs, quotation collections, and travel notes. At the same time, I will interview these writers’ decedents and other persons of relation in order to have a better understanding of their backgrounds. Through discerning the differences between the foreign lands and their hometown, and by comparison and self-examinations of returned visits, narrators would have a sense of their own positions, and thus have their perspectives of the world renewed. Their primary concerns in the writings usually encompass modernity in the American and European cities, observations of Western education systems, the development of democracy and criticism on the citizenship, and thus reveal strong critical perspectives on cultural differences and observations. Discussions will also include various writing techniques found in these travel writings, such as direct narrations, cross-references, comparisons, and criticisms on foreign cultures, that we can discern its symbolic meanings. By interpreting perspectives and analyzing narrative strategies in travel writings, and exposing the cultural differences observed by intellectual elites, who shared similar social status and education background, this project intend to contextualize the development of travel writings by Taiwanese literati.
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