Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/77345300/74198
Title: 波士頓與中國---藝術與文學(II)
Boston and China---Art and Literature--II ,III
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學英語學系
林秀玲
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: 波士頓與中國:文學與藝術II-III 林秀玲 筆者已受《中外文學》邀請編輯專輯《新英格蘭與中國: 文學與藝術》,因此預計本 研究計劃將成為此專輯研究基礎。 這個為期三年的計畫〈波士頓與中國:文學與藝術〉延續筆者近三年(93-95 學年度) 的國科會研究計畫〈紐約現代主義與中國藝術I-III, NSC93-2411-H-003-0-040; NSC94-2411-H-003-0-050; NSC95-2411-H-003-043-〉的研究,發現二十世紀的美國藝術 家與中國藝術的接觸常會追溯及歷史溯源,亦即: 美國在十九世紀末及之前的中國貿易 所輸入大量的精美中國瓷器、壁紙,美國貿易商在廣州設「行商」,美國船主船員航海 至廣州等地,帶回來文字、圖像的記載,以及美術館中中國藝術的收藏,在在啟發了二 十世紀美國現代藝術家。因此,本研究選擇波士頓城市,時間斷代上則主要放在十八、 十九世紀,尤其以十九世紀中、下頁的作家與藝術家為研究對象預計探討波士頓一地與 中國藝術的關係,共分三年,第一年,自九十六年八月至九十七年七月,已獲得國科會 獎助(波士頓與中國: 藝術與文學NSC96-2411-H-003-014-),重點放在波士頓與中國源 自美國獨立之前與中國貿易的歷史淵源,以及波士頓附近的遠東藝術館(MFA)以及其他 藝術館的東方藝術收藏。館中的收藏對十九世紀末及至二十世紀初出生或活躍於波士頓 及附近其他麻省諸鎮的美國作家、藝術家、藝術史家、藝術教育家、美學家所產生的影 響。 故,今欲申請第二年及第三年的補助,第二年自九十七年八月至九十八年七月,主 要重點放在美國作家如Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Emerson, Thoreau, Richard Henry Dana, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Charles Longfellow, Edith Wharton, Henry James, Mark Twain, John Hay, Clarence King, John La Farge, Emily Dickinson, Henry James, Edith Wharton, Amy Lowell, Percival Lowell, John Gould Fletcher, John Ficke、Wallace Stevence, e. e. Cummings 等人與中國與其他遠東地區貿易的淵源及他們如何在波士頓首 度接觸及接受中國藝術與文化之啟發。 第三年,自九十八年八月至九十九年七月則重點放在美國中國藝術之收藏以及美國 小說家Gertrude Stein 及美學家、收藏家Leo Stein , Bernard Berenson 及他們在波士頓首 度接觸及接受中國藝術之啟蒙及啟發;以及藝術家,如攝影家Alvin Langdon Coburn 與 波士頓中與中國藝術的關聯。 波士頓以及附近麻省港口城鎮,如Salem,如Ipswich,自十七世紀以來就是美國與 中國貿易的重要港口城市,這些城市也是來自英國最早移民聚集發展出來的城鎮。因此 波士頓成為乃至本計畫要研究的多位作家與藝術家首先接觸到中國美學、藝術與文學之 地。在十九世紀末,波士頓美術館更成為全美第一個收藏,也同時是第一座展出日本與 中國藝術品的博物館。波士頓在十九世紀中葉之後,也開始有較具規模的東方藝術畫廊 兼古董買賣商。 十九世紀中下葉之後,由於日本對美國的開放通商,許多新英格蘭家族盛行坐船前 行日本、中國,如Ernest Fenollosa 於一八七八年應東京帝大之邀赴日講學。美國詩人 Witter Bynner (1881-1968)亦是畢業於哈佛,一樣受啟蒙於波士頓的東方藝術收藏。他在 一九一七年與另一位日後成為詩人的哈佛同學Arthur Davidson Ficke 前往日本。詩人 Amy Lowell 來自英格蘭望族,其兄Percival Lowell 在一八七六年畢業後曾旅行於遠東 各地。以及Gertrude Stein 的哥哥Leo Stein 與堂兄弟Fred Stein 及友人Hutchins Hapgood 於一八九五年曾至東方旅行。他們在日本見到日本藝術外,更接觸,乃至收藏收購流落 至日本的中國藝術品。Leo Stein 等一行人日本後甚至到過上海、廣東、香港等地。畢業 於哈佛的歷史學家Henry Adams 與畫家John La Farge 亦結伴前往日本。由於東方行蔚 為成風,在哈佛受教育的許多人,如Ernest Fenollosa 在大學畢業後,即前往東京帝大教 授西洋哲學,後來深受日本影響,回美後,任波士頓美術館的首任東方文物主管部門的 主任,他出版過多部有關中國與日本藝術的著作影響深遠,甚至影響及美國年輕一代的 藝術家。遠東部門的收藏在日本時期大量收集日本與中國文物,甚至成為許多美國詩人 如Wallace Stevens, Harriet Monroe, Marianne Moore, Henry Adams, John Hay, Bigelow 等 人首次接觸中國藝術的窗口。 第一年:(1)波士頓與中國 (筆者按: 第一年已獲得國科會獎助: 波士頓與中國: 藝術與文學 NSC96-2411-H-003-014-; 僅在此提供作背景及理論之說明) 「事實上,小說與地方的生活密不可分。」美國作家威爾弟(Eudora Welty)曾有 這樣的觀察,「地方提供『發生了什麼事?誰在那裡?有誰來了?』的根源-這就是心 的領域。」在最基礎的文學要素中,地方、旅行與探險總是不可或缺的三件事。我們的 詩、我們的小說、我們的戲劇,自身就能繪出世界的圖像。這幅地圖範圍廣大,在時空 中有所轉變。我們的文學作品中,有很大部分乃是植根於地方的故事。這些地方可能是 某種景觀、區域、村落、城市、國家或某個大陸。它大部分是像奧德賽(Odyssey)那 樣的旅行:在冒險、發現、探索或朝聖之中,朝一個新的世界走去。 如此說來,文學本身便可以視為地圖集,是宇宙的想像地圖,已知梅蘭維爾(Herman Melville)在「雷德本」(Redburn)中所言:「在某種意義下,幾乎所有的文學作品都是 旅遊指南。」這本專集想要探索新英格蘭地區與中國之間文字、藝術、建築、貿易等許 許多多不同的關聯。它著眼於文學中隱藏或顯在的地圖,無論是過去的或現在的、現實 的或想像的。作家與作品和地方與景物之間,存在密切的連結,而在小說中的脈絡或文 學的盛世中,我們可以捕捉到某個城鎮或地區風貌。 中國確有其地其國,儘管有許多是出自於想像,但是在「真實」與「想像」、「國度」 與「作品」兩者之間本來就充滿著錯綜複雜的關係,這都是本專集要處理的對象。從古 至今,絲路之旅、馬可波羅遊記、甚至哥倫布之所以發現新大陸;在十九世紀,英法乃 至於後來八國聯軍對中國的征服、探險、帝國殖民主義的入侵,西方對中國的政治經濟 的控制,全部建立在歷史上對「中國」的想像。在西方與中國複雜的帝國擴張的地圖中, 美國出現的比較晚,但其影響力在十九世紀下葉之後,就隨著美國國力的增強而益顯重 要了。 本專集將以探討十六世紀至二十世紀初,最早美國在獨立戰爭之前,仍是英屬殖民 地之始,至二十世紀初與中國的貿易往來,文化交通的產生對美國文學、文化、藝術、 建築的影響。為什麼著重於這個時期的斷代呢?因為這個時期是原始的歷史,是日後兩 國文化交通的基礎,這個時期的此方面研究仍待開發墾拓,而至二十世紀初年,拜航空 交通便利之賜,東西方的文化交流與影響就更加明顯不移了。 Salem 協助廷打敗太平天國的美國軍官Frederick TownsendWard 即是來自Salem。他於一 八五九年來到中國,協助清軍平定太平天國。他到上海時,時年二十八歲,身無分文, 歷經三年爭戰,後來死於太平天國之戰,死後成為當時在中國最重愛戴的美國人,生前 並成為歸化的中國人,娶中國人為妻。 太平天國從一八五○年開始在廣西、湖南和湖北等省取得勝利,並於一八五三年佔 領南京,地近上海,對上海的歐洲尤其英法移民產生威脅。上海此時成立一支由歐洲人 和中國人組織成的義勇隊來防禦此城,即由華爾(Frederick Townsend Ward)所指揮, 一八六三年三月於上海市的松江區接任指揮,得到「常勝軍」之稱,重整軍隊,收復「常 熟」。十一月,戈登的「常勝軍」與李鴻章的淮軍合力攻下蘇州,一八六四年五月在今 天的南京攻下太平天國軍隊最後一個堡壘常州。戰後,同治皇帝賜予Ward 中國最高軍 階提督的稱號,英國方面亦封其為「巴茲勲」。 儘管毒品如鴉片是非法的,在十九世紀末中國開始禁鴉片,當時仍有許多美國港口與 中國貿易中仍非法走私,因鴉片而致富的不乏美國巨富世家。 波士頓與新英格蘭地區的博物館與中國藝術的收藏 I. Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and Asian Art 波士頓市內有數個與中國藝術有關的博物館。「波士頓藝術館」(Boston Museum of Fine Arts)是美國第一個收藏及展出中國及日本藝術的美術館,遠比美國大都會來得早, 這原因有二:一是波士頓原比紐約早開發,在獨立前即已是遠東,尤其是中國的貿易 (China Trade)的美國重要商港;另一個原因當然要歸功由於十九世紀末及生物學家等人 從日本帶回來的中國及日本文物與藝術,後來捐贈給波士頓藝術館,具有劃時代的重要 意義。 新英格蘭地區除了波士頓藝術館聞名遐邇之外,與中國藝術有關的此外尚有Salem 的「Peabody 航海博物館」(Peabody Museum) 、波士頓的「中國貿易館」(Boston China Trade Museum),新英格蘭各地尚有許多大大小小的公眾私人博物館收有中國文物。 其中有一個知名博物館比較會為人忽略的重要中國文物收藏館的是。該博物館以歐 洲中世紀文藝復興時期的建物風格及中古、文藝復興收藏品著名,建築物本身是十五世 紀威尼斯宮殿的風格,中間是個花朵扶疏盛開的庭園,美不勝收。博物館中收藏了兩千 五百多件的繪畫、雕刻、壁毯、家具、手抄本、珍本、裝飾藝,包括了名家堤香、林布 蘭特、米開朗基羅、拉斐爾、波堤切利、馬奈、竇家、惠施樂等人的作品。由於主人多 年的個人風格的設計,整個博物館的陳設像是徜徉在私人豪宅,而非像在一般博物館整 齊冷酷的排列,他的收藏品如雕刻,四處放置於房間、中庭、以及中庭四週的庭廊之中, 與庭園自然花朵或房間牆上的話及壁毯形成一種隨性又高雅的協調,奢華中又帶有點浪 漫的波西米亞風格。 這樣的擺設反映出主人Isabella Stewart Gardner 的特殊品味。Isabella 本人喜歡藝術 與文字,與同時期的美國滯歐,尤其是滯留在義大利威尼斯的藝術家、文人都有來往, 如Henry James 和James Whistle 等人,Isabella 當時雅好文藝,作風大膽,引起頗大爭 議。 1903 年一月一日,Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum 首度開放。當時由波士頓交響樂 成員演出巴哈、莫札特、Chausson 及舒曼,裝著鏡子的門打開,顯露出花艷鬥麗、百花 齊放的玫瑰花園,中間點綴著日本燈籠,各個房間展示了一個非常個人私密的欣賞藝術 之空間,音樂、鮮花、美景,藝術與美的饗宴於焉揭幕。這個博物館方滿百年,於2003 年至21004 年一整年都在慶祝百年慶。 博物館收藏重點是義大利文藝復興、以及Isabella 同時期的十九世紀末、二十世紀 初的惠詩樂以及John Singer Sargent。美術館中亦珍藏著Isabella 與超過一千位通信者的 包括七千多件的書信手稿,這些手中包括了著名作家如美國歷史學家HenryAdams、詩 人艾略特、Sarah Bernhardt(知名莎劇女演員)、OliverWendell Holmes,以及珍貴的但丁 手搞。 Isabella Stewart Gardner 博物館最特別的是他也收藏多件日本與中國古物。其中一 件西漢(約206BC-91AD)的鑲金銅器,熊形(Mat Weights: Bears),紀錄顯示是1914 年透 過Bernard Berenson 向巴黎的古董商Marcel Bing 購買的。另一件木刻觀音像,宋朝十一 世紀至十二世紀作品,殘遺鑲金與著色,這件作品是1919 年購自紐約的Parish-Watson。 另一件東魏作品的佛像碑石像,亦是於1914 年透過Bernard Berenson 購自巴黎的Victor Gloubew。 因此我希望能前往波士頓檢視Isabella 與Bernard Berenson 的書信手稿。Bernard Berenson 是二十世紀最重要的文藝復興藝術史家,也恐怕是影響許多博物館收藏方向與 收購的重要掮客,從晚近法國收藏古董商Duveen 的傳記出版中和Bernard Berenson 與 Duveen 兩人的長期合作看來,Berenson 頗具爭議性,但他絕非是個起然利益之外的純 藝術史家則是可以確定的。因此,若追蹤Isabella Stewart Gardner 與Bernard Berenson 的手稿,我們應該可以一窺二十世紀初中國文物如何外流,經手過巴黎與紐約的古董掮 客,而進入美國私人美術館如Isabella Stewart Gardner 的收藏之中。這是藝術文化史的 重要部份,也是中西藝術文化交流的重要章節。 (2): Ernest Fenollosa and ArthurWesley Dow, and Asian Art Collections in Boston Museum of Fine Arts 影響到整個波士頓及鄰近居域的美國文人與藝術家對中國產生興趣的最重要人物 當推Ernest Fenollosa,他是MFA 的受任東方藝術部門的主任,以及他的繼任者Arthur Wesley Dow,所以第一年的研究將探討二十世紀早期美國的美學教育——東方與西方美 學交會的辯論場域。在本文中,我將藉由兩個個案:美國波士頓東方藝術館長Ernest Fenollosa,以及他的好友Arthur Dow,來討論日本及中國美學對於美國藝術家與作家的 影響。Dow 後來成為一位非常具有影響力的教師,他在哥倫比亞大學的師範學院指導過 Georgia O'Keeffe、Max Weber,以及其他許多當時在紐約的藝術家。受到Fenollosa 的影 響,Dow 也相信日本與中國的藝術教育模式遠勝過西方。我也會討論在美國的藝術教育 爭論是如何深深影響美國往後當代藝術發展的東方化。 Fenollosa 1853 年出生於麻薩諸塞州的Salem(Salem 離波士頓不遠,同時是美國作家 霍桑(Hawthorne)的故鄉),Salem 同時是美國最早與中國有密切貿易關係的港口, Fenollosa 於1908 年在倫敦過世。他在1874 年畢業於哈佛大學。在劍橋大學,他繼續研 究哲學與神學。在波士頓美術館藝術學院服務一年之後,他在1878 年到日本東京帝國 大學教授政治經濟與哲學,在那段期間他研究了當地的古寺、神龕與藝術珍品,其中有 許多都處於棄置的狀況。他也協助復甦了日本風格的繪畫。在大學任教了八年,他協助 成立了東京藝術學院以及帝國博物館,在1888 年時擔任其董事。後來,他更皈依了佛 教。Fenollosa 眾多成就中,還包括了首部日本國家寶藏的目錄編輯,並在期間發現了數 個世紀前由禪師從中國帶回的古代中國卷軸。日本天皇贈予他日昇與神鏡的勳章。1886 年,在他所收藏的藝術品應該歸予波士頓藝術館的條件下,他將它們賣給了一位波士頓 醫師Charles Goddard Weld (1857-1911)。1890 年時他回到波士頓藝術館的東方藝術部擔 任館長,直到1896 年。在MFA,Fenollosa 於1894 年組織了第一個中國繪畫展覽,並 將其部門發展成為訓練學者的機構。Fenollosa 影響了波士頓地區的遠東藝術的收藏,並 且也影響美國其他地區的遠東藝術的收藏。比如底特律知名的中國藝術收藏家Charles Lang Freer,Fenollosa 即擔任Freer 的顧問,Freer 畢生收藏的東方藝術品其中又以中國 藝術為大宗,在其死後,捐贈給國家在華盛頓D.C.成立國家畫廊(Charles Lang Freer National Galleries),影響深遠。 Fenollosa 協助累積與建設的波士頓藝術館遠東藝術收藏日後啟發了許多哈佛畢業 的作家,如Leo Stein(Gertrude Stein 的兄弟,也是最早收藏畢卡索與馬諦斯的開創收藏 家)以及意象派詩人John Gould Fletcher。Fenollosa 對美國現代主義者的影響也包括了 其他卓越的藝術家,如Arthur Alvin Langdon Coburn、Max Weber(不是那位知名的德國 社會學者,而是與其同名的美國抽象與立體主義藝術家)、Georgia O’Keeffe,他們都是 激進的藝術家,且都參與Alfred Stieglitz「291 畫廊」以及Pictorialist 攝影分離派運動。 Fenollosa 對於美國現代主義的影響似乎完全被低估了。嘗試將Fenollosa 置於較大範圍 的波士頓東方主義與紐約前衛的傳統中,將有助於重新評估Fenollosa 對於美國現代主 義的影響,同時也重新認識到中國與日本對美國現代主義的影響,也將對重新復原美國 現代主義的研究中的東方影響傳統有所助益。 Fenollosa 對於現代主義的影響相當廣泛:在倫敦,他的遺孀Mary 將其手稿遺贈給 Pound,他出版了Fenollosa 的《作為中國藝術媒介的中國文字》,一部深深影響Pound 的表意文字以及之後意象派發展的著作。藉由Pound,Fenollosa 也影響了Henri Gaudier-Brzeska 與其他人。Fenollosa 的《中國與日本藝術的黃金時期》也影響了英格蘭 的Laurence Binyon、Georgia O’Keeffe 與美國的Arthur Dove。 Arthur Dow,一位極具影響力的藝術家、攝影家、設計家與藝術教師,受到Fenollosa 對中國與日本藝術的看法的深刻影響。1899 年時Dow 出版了《結構》(Composition), 一部深入的美學教育的書,對於許多美國的攝影、繪畫、印刷、設計、陶藝及藝術教育 等作品的產生都有廣泛的影響,包括O’Keeffe、Max Weber、John Marin、Stieglitz 等數 不盡的藝術家。看到了西方藝術教育的缺失,Dow 轉向東方的藝術。《結構》採用了許 多中國與日本的觀點:筆觸、濃淡、線條、氣韻生動;他企圖對西方風格的表現與透視 法的根本變更。Dow 對於「結構」的看法植基於東方藝術。在這個觀點中,他便是受到 Fenollosa 的影響。後來,Dow 在麻薩諸塞州的Ipswich 成立了藝術學院,並在哥倫比亞 大學的師範學院授教了許多年,此地產生了許多傑出的藝術家與藝術教師,其中最出名 的便是Georgia O’Keeffe。中國與日本藝術的影響經過Dow 的提倡與教導,在紐約前衛 派與美國藝術上是不能也不應該被忽視的。Dow 長久以來都為其學生的成就光環所遮 蔽,因此重新恢復Dow 在美國藝術教育界與波士頓以及紐約前衛派歷史中的地位是非 常重要的。他搭起了一座東方藝術與美國現代藝術(1900-1950)的重要橋樑。 在中國五四以來美術全盤的西化的同時,美國的藝術教育卻東方化。這篇文章主要 在探討二十世紀初期經Fenollosa 與Dow 的鼓吹,東方美學深深影響美國往後當代藝術 發展。 第二年:九十六年八月至九十七年七月:美國作家與中國藝術 第二年的研究將以作家為主,將包含重要作家如Emerson, Thoreau, HenryWadsworth Longfellow, Charles Longfellow, Richard Henry Dana, Emily Dickinson, Amy Lowell, Percival Lowell, Henry Adams, John Hay, Clarence King, John La Farge, William Carlos Williams, Wallace Stevence, e.e. cummings, Marianne Moore, Amy Lowell 等人。這些作家 中不乏祖先是從事中國貿易經商致富的豪門巨賈的世家子弟,有些則至東方旅行,或因 為出生或成長於新英格蘭地區,受新英格蘭地區的中國文物收藏之薰染,因此雅好中國 文物與典籍。今舉其要者而論之。 HenryAdams, John Hay, Clarence King, John La Farge Henry Adams(1838-1918)是美國歷史學家、記者及小說家。他來自波士頓煊赫 的政治世家,他的祖父(John Adams)及曾祖父(John QuincyAdams)曾任美國總統。Adamsr 家族收藏廣東的定製磁,燒製族徽於其上。今仍展示於其故居博物院中。Henry Adams 於一八五八年畢業自哈佛,他遊歷歐洲,曾於柏林大學旁聽民法的演講。Henry Adams 於一八六零年總統選戰正酣熱時回到美國,此時,他的父親Charles Frances Adams, Sr. 亦正問鼎美國(US HOUSE of Representatives)的連任。此時,HenryAdams 曾短暫任職波 士頓法官Horace Gay 的波士頓公司,十一月,他的父親選戰勝利,他的父親要他擔任 私人秘書,這個父子之間熟悉的工作可以回溯至他的祖父John Quincy Adams 亦是充當 他的曾祖父John Adams 的私人秘書。很明顯地,他的父親Charles Frances Adams 希望 培植HenryAdams 成為亞當斯政治家族的接班人。但比起外交或政治事務,寫作、歷史 與新聞報導才是他的真愛。 亨利.亞當斯(HenryAdams and John Hay),在其著名的自傳《亨利.亞當斯的教育》 (The Education of Henry Adams)中提及摯友John Hay,Hay 曾是對華事務史上的重要人 物,John Hay 曾自1898 至1895 年逝世前擔任美國前後總統President Mckinley 及其後 的Theodore Roosevelt 的國務卿(Secretary of the State)。Hay 曾於美國總統McKinley 任內 於1899 年確立各國對華的「門戶開放」政策,確立各國在華的政治經濟利益的機 會均等。亨利.亞當斯的祖父及曾祖父曾分別擔任美國總統,亨利.亞當斯本人對中 國與日本十分嚮往。曾與友人,美國畫家John La Farge 前往日本。 …. HenryAdams 摯友之一Clarence King (1842-1901) 是美國的地理學家及登山家。 他出生東岸波士頓南方不遠羅德島的新港(New Port, Rhode Island),祖先從事中國貿易致 富,他本人是美國地理測量學會(the United States Geological Society)第一任會長,以內 華達山探險著名。 一八六二年,King 自耶魯的Sheffield Scientific School 化學畢業,畢業後,他前往 加州加入加州地理測量學會。一八六四年King 及Richard Cotter 報導首度登上內華達 Sierra Nevada 的第一高峰Mount Tyndall。他花了六年探險測量自懷俄明至加州邊地的美 國西部。此時,他出版了出名的Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada (1872),完成了這份 多年地理的田野調查,他又出版了
Boston and China: Literature and Art Hsiu-ling Lin The author has been invited by Chung-Wai Literary Monthly 《中外文學》to guest-edit a special issue on “New England and China: Art and Literature.” Hence, this research project will provide a solid theoretical grounding for the issue. This three-year project, “Boston and China: Art and Literature I-III,”originates from, and extends, from my earlier, also three-year, NSC research project on “New York Avant-Garde and Chinese Art.”(紐約現代主義運動與中國藝術, NSC 93-2411-H-003-0-040; NSC 94-2411-H-003-0-050; NSC 95-2411-H-003-043). This “Boston and China”project will continue my concern with American perceptions of Chinese art, literature and culture, and this project will focus on the connection between New England, Boston, particularly, and China. It will be divided into three years—and it has received the grant for the first year (NSC 96-2411-H-003-014). Therefore, I am applying for the renewal of the grants for the second and the third years. The first year, August 2007 to July 2008, which has been awarded, has covered the historical context of the China Trade, and its impact on American art, culture, literature and architecture, and also the formation of Chinese art collections in the Boston area. Starting from the mid-nineteenth century, after compelling opening door of Japan by Commodore Matthew Perry in 1854, many New Englanders, especially Bostonians, traveled to the Far East, Japan and China, and started the fashion of collecting Japanese and Chinese art and objects. Therefore, I am writing to apply for grants for the second and the third years to finish up the research. The second year of the research, August 2008-July 2009, will now I am applying for the grants, will explore the inspiration of Chinese art collections and translation of Chinese poetry upon American writers, based in Boston and its surrounding area, such as Salem, Portland, Newport, Lowell, and other port-cities, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. These writers include Amy Lowell, John Gould Fletcher, Witter Bynner, John Ficke, Henry Adams, Wallace Stevens, e. e. Cummings, Gertrude and Leo Steins. Also included will be the writers who were born in these port cities: for example, Nathaniel Hawthorne, from Salem, whose father was a captain and died in the South Asian Sea; Herman Melville, born in New York City in 1819, who was forced to work as a sailor to support family when his father passed away. Although he only traveled to Japan, and never reached China, but he mentioned several times in his novels about China and the China Seas. Once his ship departed from Boston. The third year of this project, August 2009-July 2010, will cover the American artists in the larger Bostonian area, who were interested in Japanese and Chinese art and philosophy, including James Albott Whistler and Alvin Langdon Coburn. Included also in this section is the impact of Chinese decorative art upon American interior designs and architecture façade. Chinese porcelains have decorated many houses in the New England area and Chinese architectural symbols have also impacted the interior and outside designs of the houses in New England area. Boston and its neighboring port-cities, such as Salem, Ipswich, Portland, had been the major trading ports between the American colony and China since the seventeenth century, and these cities are also the earliest settlement cities for the European immigrant. With no surprise, therefore, New England produced the Transcendentalists, such as Emerson and Thoreau, who admired Chinese Confucianism, civil system, and thought. Because the subject of American Transcendentalism and Chinese thought has been quite thoroughly studied, and well-established, this project henceforth will not cover this part, but those writers beyond American Transcendentalists. Emily Dickinson visited Boston in 1846 and stayed for about four weeks, during which time she viewed a Chinese art exhibition, presumably in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (see Uno Hiroko, Emily Dickinson Visits Boston; An Emily Dickinson Encyclopedia 28.) Boston’s Japanese and Chinese collection and Oriental connection brought inspiration for many writers and artists covered in this project. In the 1880s and 1890s, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston became the first American museum to collect and exhibit Chinese and Japanese art, and more and more Oriental art dealers and galleries opened their shops in Boston, and nearby New York and Philadelphia. After compelling Japan to open its door by Commodore Matthew Perry in 1854, many New Englanders, especially Bostonians, many Harvard-graduates, sailed to Japan, such as Morse, Earnest Fenollosa, Percival Lowell, Leo Stein with his cousin, Fred Stein, Henry Adams went together with John La Farge, Weld. Bigelow. Morse started zoology, archaeology and anthropology in Tokyo University, and Fenollosa taught Hegelian philosophy in Tokyo University as well. Many were invited by the Japanese emperor during Meiji Reformation and Modernization period, and they stayed many years in Japan. Some even went on China. For example, Leo Stein after Japan continued to travel to Shanghai, Canton, and Hong Kong. In Japan, they explored and collected Japanese and Chinese art and objects. After they returned to Boston, they brought back many Japanese and Chinese art and objects amassed in Japan, many of which went into public collections in Boston and Salem museums. Returning back to Boston, Fenollosa became the director of the Department of Far Eastern Art in the Boston Fine Arts Museum and published many books about Japanese and Chinese art. His collection and publications exerted a far-reaching influence upon American collectors, artists and writers. Charles Freer was inspired and advised by Fenollosa to collect Chinese art, now bequeathed to the National Freer Galleries in Washington, D.C. Many American writers such as Wallace Stevens, Harriet Monroe, and Marianne Moore, and Bernard Berenson would describe that their first window to Chinese art was through the Chinese art collections at the Boston Fine Arts Museum. The First Year: August 2007-2008, which has been awarded with the research grant, NSC 96-2411-H-003-014. (1) Boston and China Trade (2) Ernest Fenollosa and ArthurWesley Dow (1) Boston and China Trade: In this part of the first-year research, I will focus on the historical context of the China Trade which gave rise to the Bostonians’fascination with Chinese art. Historical background will also help contextualize the American discourse and views of Chinese art. (2) Ernest Fenollosa and ArthurWesley Dow Fenollosa was born in 1853, in Salem, Massachusettes, died in 1908 in London. He served as Curator of Oriental art at the Boston Museum of Fine Art, 1890-96. He was the son of Manuel Francisco Ciriaco Fenollosa and Mary Silsbee. He attended Hacker Grammar School in Salem, Massachusetts, and the Salem High School before graduating from Harvard in the class of 1874. He continued study at Cambridge University in philosophy and divinity. After a year at the art school at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, during which time he married Lizzie Goodhue Millett, he traveled to Japan in 1878 (at the invitation of American zoologist and Orientalist Edward Sylvester Morse) to teach political economy and philosophy at the Imperial University at Tokyo. He studied the indigenous ancient temples, shrines and art treasures, many of which were in a neglected state. He helped revive the Nihonga (Japanese) style of painting together with Japanese artists Kan H (1828-1888) and Hashimoto Gah (1835-1908). After eight years at the University, he helped found the Tokyo Fine Arts Academy and the Imperial Museum acting as its director in 1888. He converted to Buddhism, and changed his name to Tei-Shin. He also adopted the name Kan Yeitan Masanobu, suggesting that he had been admitted into the ancient Japanese art academy of the Kan. Among Fenollosa's accomplishments were the first inventory of Japan's national treasures, and in so doing he discovered ancient Chinese scrolls brought to Japan by traveling Zen monks centuries earlier. The Emperor of Japan decorated him with the orders of the Rising Sun and the Sacred Mirror. In 1886 he sold the art collection he had amassed to Boston physician Charles Goddard Weld (1857-1911) on the condition that it go to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. In 1890 he returned to Boston to be curator of the department of Oriental art at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. There Fenollosa organized the first exhibition of Chinese painting at the MFA in 1894 and developed the Department into a training center for generations of scholars. His public divorce and immediate remarriage to the writer Mary McNeill Scott (1865-1954) in 1895 outraged the Boston community, leading to his dis al from the Museum in 1896. He was replaced by his student and fellow buying companion, Okakura Kakuzo (1862-1913). Fenollosa published Masters of Ukioye (浮世繪大師), a historical account of Japanese paintings and color prints which were exhibited at the New York Fine Arts Building, in 1896. In 1897 he journeyed back to Japan to be professor of English literature at the Imperial Normal School at Tokyo. After three years he returned to the United States to write and lecture on Asia. After his death, his wife compiled the two-volume Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art from his notes. His literary executor, Ezra Pound, compiled from notes and manuscripts, Cathay (1915); Certain Noble Plays of Japan (1916); and 'Noh', or, Accomplishment, a Study of the Classical Stage of Japan (1916). His last years were spent creating a collection for the Detroit railroad baron Charles Lang Freer, the basis of what is now the Freer Collection, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Fenollosa brought a curator's enthusiasm to the study of Asian art in the United States. He inspired Boston collectors to venture into the relatively new field of Far Eastern art, endowing the Boston Museum of Fine Art with one of the earliest and best Asian art collections in the United States. His books were widely read, but unfortunately are full of errors. Epochs, for example, was completed from notes after his death by his earnest, but less-knowledgeable, wife. The study of Japanese art in the United States was at such a dawning point that much information taken as correct by scholars has since been corrected. Assessments of Fenollosa's lasting contribution to the study of Asian art have varied greatly. Estimations that he both discovered the subject and that he made no important contribution to it exist. Fenollosa, together with Weld and another society physician-turned collector, William Sturgis Bigelow (1850-1926) formed what were known as the “Boston Orientalists.” This three-year project will place Ezra Pound within the matrix of Bostonian Orientalist tradition. Pound’s connection with Boston seems tangential, through Ernest Fenollosa. Fenollosa’s untimely death in London seems in hindsight, portentous of ushering a new, important phase of Chinese influence for Pound more immediately in his 1913 Imagist movement, and more permanently throughout his life. Throughout his life, Pound was fascinated with Confucius thought. He later even translated Confucian Classics into Italian. His indebtness to Fenollosa, which has long been well documented by Poundian scholars, was enormous. However, this paper will place Pound-Fenollosa’s connection within a slightly different light. I will place Pound within the tradition of the influence of Fenollosa, as well as within the entire generations of American artists and writers who came directly or indirectly under Fenollosa’s influence. The Far Eastern art collection that Fenollosa helped amass and establish inspired Harvard-educated Leo Stein, Gertrude Stein’s brother, and John Gould Fletcher. Fenollosa’s influence on American modernists includes other prominent artists as well, including Arthur Alvin Langdon Coburn, Max Weber (not that famous German Sociologist, but the namesake American abstractionist and cubist), Georgia O’Keeffe, the artists who were active and involved in the Alfred Stieglitz “291 Gallery” and Photo-Cessession Movement. Fenollosa’s influence on American modernism seems wholly underestimated. Attempting to place Pound within the larger Bostonian Orientalist and New York Avant Garde traditions will help re-estimate Fenollosa’s influence on American Modernism, hence the Chinese and Japanese influence on American Modernism, and will help reinstate Pound within this American tradition of Oriental influence. After Fenollosa’s untimely death, Pound published his Chinese Written Characters as the Medium of Chinese Art, a work which deeply influenced Pound’s ideas of ideographs and the later development of Imagism. Through Pound, he also influenced Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and others. Fenollosa’s Epoches of Chinese and Japanese Art also influenced Laurence Binyon in England and Georgia O’Keeffe and Arthur Dove, among others, in America.) Later, Dow established an art school at Ipswich, Massachusetts, and taught for many years at the Teachers’ College, Columbia University, which has prided itself on the time-honored tradition of producing many outstanding artists and art teachers, the most famous of whom is O’Keeffe. The influence of Chinese and Japanese art, via Dow’s promotion and teaching, on the New York avant-garde, and on American art at large, cannot and should not be overlooked. Dow’s significance has for a long time been overshadowed by the success of his students, and therefore it is important that Dow’s status be restored in the history of the New York avant-garde (and not just in American art education, where he is generally recognized). He was a pivotal link between Oriental art and the New York avant-garde. Meanwhile, Pound was born in 1885 in Hailey, Idaho, but he moved with the family when his father Homer Pound found a job at the National Mint, Philadelphia, an extremely important China Trade city in the nineteenth century, as the studies by Jonathan Goldstein’s seminal 1978 Philadelphia and the China Trade, 1682-1846: Commercial, Cultural, and Attitudinal Effects. In his college days, as Qian Zhao-ming reveals, Pound had exposed to the Japonisme fad in the family, and to Japanese and Chinese art collection in the University of Pennsylvania from 1901 to 1906. Pound left the United States for Europe in 1907, and in 1908 he arrived London not long before Fenollosa died untimely in London. Pound was more involved with London avant-gardist movements, Imagist and then the Vorticist movements. His influence on American free-verse was enormous although he was absent from United States. He exerted his influence in absence on Chicago’s Poetry magazine, and Margaret Anderson’s the Egoist as a foreign correspondent. The Imagist anthologies were published in the States, although the main testing ground and arena took place in London. He helped publish the works of the upcoming influential American poets and writers. Although he was absent from the scene, he was an enormous influence on American modern poetry. Between then and 1945 when he was arrested in 1945 for the treason charge, and was repatriated to the United States to stand trial, he was absent from the American scene for a major part of his long-duration careen. In 1908, Fenollosa’s widow, Mary, bequeathed his unpublished notes to Pound. Pound, inspired by these notes, decided to publish them with the aid from Arthur Waley, the noted British translator and Oriental art curator in the British Museum. This mysterious and predestined meeting between Fenollosa’s widow and Pound took place in London. Behind Fenollosa, however, is the long Bostonian Orientalist tradition that went far back to the early days of China Trade. This is not a far-fetched argument, because the long China Trade tradition behind Boston, New York, and Philadelphia when the young American artists, photographers, poets, writers, aestheticians grew up and they were very familiar with this Orientalist background. This paper intends to relocate Pound’s connection with the Bostonian Orientalist tradition, and with New York avant-garde movements, and Boston’s Orientalist tradition also has a profound bearing upon New York avant-garde movement, and to reassess Pound’s influence on the indigenous American movements. Fenollosa comes from a city near Boston, Salem. Salem had long been the harbor city of China Trade since the eighteenth century. Arthur Wesley Dow comes from Ipswich, northern to Salem. Amy Lowell and her brother Percival Lowell comes from Brookline, in today’s larger Boston metropolitan area. Tracing the modernists’ encountering of Chinese art back to the early colonial China Trade is not too far-fetched. In the late 1870s and early 1880’s, New Englanders such as Ernest Fenollosa and William Sturgis Bigelow (1850-1926) went to Japan. Fenollosa went to Japan as a professor of philosophy, and Bigelow was a physician. Shortly they became fervent collectors of Japanese Buddhist art. In 1895, Leo Stein, his cousin, Fred Stein, and Hutchins Hapgood went on the tour of the world and stopped in Japan. Fenollosa established the Oriental Wing in 1890-95, but that time the Oriental art collection consisted mainly of Japanese art. Okakura Kakuzo (1862-1913) was Fenollosa’s successor at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA). During Kakuzo’s term, he rapidly expands its Chinese art collection with the aid of Hayasaki Kokichi (1874-1956), a dealer who bought for MFA in China. The Oriental Art collection at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, has inspired the entire generation of the modernists. John Gould Fletcher, Percival Lowell, and Leo Stein all noted the importance of the Oriental art collection in the MFA, opening their eyes to the East. Pound, Williams, Stevens, Amy Lowell, John Gould Fletcher, even Leo Stein, the whole modernist generation had read Ernest Fenollosa’s works on Oriental art, or were frequent visitors of the Far Eastern art section where Fenollosa worked in the Boston Fine Arts Museum. In his Life, John Gould Fletcher wrote that in 1914 he visited Boston Fine Art Museum, and “The time I sent in the Far-Eastern department, with the new eyes to see the masterpieces of Sung and Kamakura (鐮倉) period, reeducated me to know that the aim of their visual arts were akin to my own poetry in spirit, and it also educated me that the purpose of the poetical artists is to reform the world. They [Sung painting and painting of Kamakura (鐮倉時代) remade me to immerse myself in the lively instinct and natural soul”(Life 185). Bernard Berenson (1865-1959) chronicled one of his exhibitions' startling effects. After viewing forty-four Chinese Buddhist paintings loaned from Kyoto's temple Daitoku-ji to the MFA, December 1894 through March 1895, the renowned art historian commented: “To begin with they had composition of figures and groups as perfect and simple as the best we Europeans have ever done. . . . I was prostrate. Fenollosa shivered as he looked, I thought I should die, and even Denman Ross who looked dumpy Anglo-Saxon was jumping up and down. We had to poke and pinch each other's necks and wept. No, decidedly I never had such an art experience.” As Bernard Berenson has testified, the forty-four Luohan paintings “spoke”to him. Berenson had studied countless European masterpieces; yet he said that he “never had such an art experience.” In front of the Buddhist images, he “thought [he] should die.” Georgia O’Keeffe, the most famous American female painter in the twentieth century, had many books on the subject, including a special, fully illustrated edition of Fenollosa’s books on Japanese and Chinese art, which she enjoyed showing to friends. (Rose, Barbara, John Marin: The 291 Years 36) ArthurWesley Dow Fenolloa’s influence through Pound on Anglo-American writers were enormous, but his influence through Dow is underestimated. Fenolloa’s influence through Dow was passed down on Max Weber, Georgia O’Keeffe. Both Fenollosa and Dow taught at the Pratt Institute. Dow also taught at the Columbia University. Arthur Dow, an influential artist, designer, and art teacher, was deeply influenced by Chinese and Japanese art. In 1899 he published Composition, an in-depth study that has had far-reaching influence on several generations of American photography, painting, prints, designs, pottery, and art education, by artists such as O’Keeffe, Max Weber, John Marin, Stieglitz, and innumerable others. Seeing the insufficiencies in western art education, Dow turned to eastern art. Composition adopts many Chinese and Japanese ideas: brushwork, notan (濃淡), lines, “rhythmic vitality”and “chi”(氣韻生動); it was a radical departure from western-style representation and perspectives. Dow’s idea of “composition”was rooted in Oriental art. In this aspect, he was influenced by Ernest Fenollosa, the curator of Japanese art in the Boston Museum of Fine Art. (Fenollosa’s influence upon modernism was very far-reaching: in London, his widow, Mary, bequeathed his manuscripts to Pound, who published Fenollosa’s Chinese Written Characters as the Medium of Chinese Art, a work which deeply influenced Pound’s ideographs and the later development of Imagism. Through Pound, he also influenced Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and others. Fenollosa’s Epoches of Chinese and Japanese Art also influenced Laurence Binyon in England and Georgia O’Keeffe and Arthur Dove, among others, in America.) Later, Dow established an art school at Ipswich, Massachusetts, and taught for many years at Teachers College, Columbia University, which has produced many outstanding artists and art teachers, the most famous of whom is Georgia O’Keeffe. The influence of Chinese and Japanese art, via Dow’s promotion and teaching, on the New York avant-garde and on American art at large cannot and should not be overlooked. Dow has for a long time been overshadowed by the success of his students, and therefore it is important that his status in the history of the New York avant-garde (and not just in American art education, where he is generally recognized) be restored. He was a pivotal link between Oriental art and the New York avant-garde. (Arthur Dow’s archives are scattered in Columbia University and UCLA.) Dow acknowledged Fenollosa’s influence on him in Composition: “In experience of five years in the French schools left me thoroughly dissatisfied with academic theory. In a search for something more vital I began a comparative study of the art of all nations and epochs. While pursuing an investigation of Oriental painting and design at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts I met the late Professor Ernest F. Fenollosa. He was then in charge of the Japanese collections, a considerable portion of which had been gathered by him in Japan. He was a philosopher and logician gifted with a brilliant mind of great analytical power. This, with rare appreciation, gave him an insight into the nature of fine art such as few ever attain. (Dow, Composition 4) An experience of five years in the French schools left me thoroughly dissatisfied with academic theory. In a search for something more vital I began a comparative study of the art of all nations and epochs. While pursuing an investigation of Oriental painting and design at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts I met the late Professor Ernest F. Fenollosa. He was then in charge of the Japanese collections, a considerable portion of which had been gathered by him in Japan. He was a philosopher and logician gifted with a brilliant mind of great analytical power. This, with rare appreciation, gave him an insight into the nature of fine art such as few ever attain. (Dow, Composition 4) As imperial art commissioner for the Japanese government he had exceptional opportunities for a critical knowledge of both Eastern and Western art. He at once gave me his cordial support in my quest, for he also felt the inadequacy of modern art teaching. He vigorously advocated a radically different idea, based as in music, upon synthetic principles. He believed music to be, in a sense, the key to the other fine arts, since its essence is pure beauty; that space art may be called “visual music”, and may be studied and criticised [sic] from this point of view. Convinced that this new conception was a more reasonable approach to art, I gave much time to preparing with Professor Fenollosa a progressive series of synthetic exercises. My first experiment in applying these in teaching was made in 1889 in my Boston classes, with Professor Fenollosa as lecturer on the philosophy and history of art. The results of the work thus begun attracted the attention of some educators, notably Mr. Frederic B. Pratt, of that great institution where a father’s vision has been given form by the sons. Through his personal interest and confidence in these structural principles, a larger opportunity was offered in the art department of Pratt Institute, Brooklyn. Here during various periods, I had charge of classes in life drawing, painting, design and normal art; also of a course for Kindergarten teachers. Professor Fenollosa continued his lectures during the first year. (Dow, Composition 5) In the above preface to his Composition, Dow paid homage to Fenollosa. In Boston, Dow also started to apply what he learned from Fenollosa’s Far Eastern art teaching to his art lessons. He summarized Oriental art teachings into his Composition. Composition contains thee main lessons: 1. Line. The chief element of beauty in architecture, sculpture, metal work, etching, line design and line drawings. 2. Notan. The chief element in illustration, charcoal drawing, messotint, Oriental ink painting and architectural light and shade. 3. Color. The chief element in painting, Japanese prints, textile design, stained glass, embroidery, enamelling and pottery decoration. Dow’s influence upon later generations of artists and art teachers was wide-spread. William S. Rice, Bertha Lum, and many others were influenced by him. For instance, in the catalogue of the 1999 exhibition Arthur Wesley Dow and American Arts and Crafts, featuring Dow’s role as an art teacher, Nancy E. Green and Jessie Poesch note: Although William S. Rice did not study with Dow, he was profoundly influenced by Dow’s work at this time, as he frequently acknowledged. Rice’s first encounter with Japanese color woodcuts came at the 1915 Pan Pacific Exposition in San Francisco; he later wrote a manual for use in art schools that incorporated many of the principles in Dow’s Composition. (Green and Poesch 68) Bertha Lum, a California who spent much of her time living abroad—first in Japan, then in China—and who made prints with great skill and intelligence, probably first encountered Dow’s ideas while a student at the Art Institute of Chicago. (Green and Poesch 68) Later on, Dow went to teach at the Pratt Institute in New York. As Nancy E. Green and Jessie Poesch note in an exhibition catalogue, Arthur Wesley Dow and American Arts and Crafts, featuring Dow’s influence upon later artists, such as O’Keeffe, Max Weber, and many other artists and art teachers across the United States: Dow’s Composition was compiled from articles originally published in the Pratt Institute Monthly. There, Dow discussed in depth the thoughts on aesthetics he had developed with the Asian art scholar Ernest Fenollosa. The book was heavily illustrated with examples of objects from Asian, Aztec, African, Egyptian, Oceanic, pre-Columbian, and Western cultures, thereby encouraging the student to learn—and learn well—from the decorative principles of design of every culture. (58) HenryAdams, John Hay, Clarence King, and John La Farge Henry Adams, John Hay, Clarence King and John La Farge were close friends. And this group of friends to some extents were all involved with China Trade. The powerful Adams family, from which Henry descended, was involved with China Trade, so was Clarence King’s family. Clarence King established the “Open Door”policy of China for American government, while John La Farge went to Japan with Henry Adams, but learned to master mandarin Chinese while in Japan, and while he loved Japanese art and Buddhist shrines, he also loved Chinese painting and colors. Henry Adams (1838-1918) was a famed American historian, journalist, and a novelist. He came from one of the very powerful “Boston Brahmins”—politically influential—his grandfather, John Adams, and great grandfather, (John Quincy Adams, were the American Presidents. Henry Adams graduated from Harvard in 1856. He afterwards traveled in Europe, and later he went with the Impressionist painter, also a devoted Catholic and deeply religious American, John La Farge, to Japan. Henry Adams planned to further travel to China, and all his later life, he desired to visit China. He collected Chinese porcelains and other objects while he was in Paris and in Washington, D.C. In The Education of Henry Adams, he mentioned many times about China, and expressed his concern for his friend, John Hay, and Hay’s “Open Door”policy. Clarence King (1842-1901) was an American geologist and a mountaineer. He was born in New Port, Rhode Island. His ancestors were engaged with the China Trade. He was the first President of the United States Geological Society,famous for his exploration of Sierra Nevada. He graduated not from Harvard, but from Yale’s Sheffield Scientific School with a degree in Chemistry in 1862. After graduation, he joined the California Geological Society. In 1864, King and Richard Cotter reported their amounting the tallest Mount Tyndall in the Sierra Nevada. He spent six years, exploring and measuring the vast area from Wyoming to the area bordering California. Around this time, he published his famous Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada (1872). After completing this field work of many years, he published Systematic Geology。 While King worked in 1879 as the director for the government’s measuring project for the West, he became close with the President’s assistant, Henry Adams, who lived just behind the White House. They immediately became close friends, and their friendship lasted throughout their life, because they shared interest in history and journalism. Henry Adams in his famous autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams (1907) , mentions Clarence King. After King died,he was buried in Newport, Rhode Island. The Kings lived in Newport for many generations. Newport was another New England port cities which were actively engaged with the China Trade. The Kings were also the first settlement families, and were involved in the China Trade, either ship builders, captains, or traders. Clarence’s grandfather was among the earliest China Trade merchants. Clarence’s father, James King, and his uncle, Charles, were both in China while the Opium War broke out. They were both forced to return to the U.S. James was in China, while Clarence was born, and the family was prosperous when he was born because of the legacy of the China Trade. However, James died in China when Clarence was about seven years old, and the shipping company went bankrupt when a streamer of spices sank in the sea. John La Farge, born in New York, an American painter with French descendent. He went to Paris to be enrolled in the studio of Thomas Couture. Returning to the United States, he resided in New Port, Rhode Island, painting landscape. He showed deep interest in Japanese art, and he and Whistler were among the pioneering Japonisme painters. Many people know that both La Farge and Whistler were fascinated with Japanese art, but few know that both were in love with Chinese art as well; both collected Chinese porcelains, and loved to paint Chinese antiques as the background. They called our attention, because they belonged to a clique of artists, men of letters, historians, and civil servants. They belonged to the inside circle of arts and politics. The extended family of this circle even include Henry James, Fenollosa, Bigelow and others. While John La Farge went with Henry Adams to Japan, they both met Bigelow and Fenollosa and other Bostonians in Japan. Edward Sylvester Morse Edward Sylvester Morse(1838-1925) was a famous American zoologist and an Orientalist. He was born into Portland.
URI: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/handle/77345300/74198
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0238_04_009
Appears in Collections:教師著作

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.