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Ghost Translators and Exiled Men of Letters--A Description of Translators in Post-war Taiwan
|Abstract:||本文描述 1945臫 1965年間，在台灣有譯作單行本印行紀錄的譯者生態。台灣在 1945年結束長達半世紀的日治時期之後，由於語言因素，台籍知識份子無法立即使用流利的白話文書寫，必大陸譯作；佖 1949年隨即開始長達三十八年的戒嚴，查禁仍在世的大陸譯者作品，以至於匿名或冒名譯作充斥，不在場的大陸譯者宛如幽靈。目前已知在 1965年以前，有譯本被冒名或匿名翻印的大陸譯者至央 217人，出生年籍可確定者 137人，數量龐大，日 1950年代双 1960年代最重要的譯者族群。這些譯作大多初版於 1930双 1940時期，不乏名家，但長期以來由於姓名表示不實，即使解嚴已久，台灣對於這批譯者仍相當陌生。戰後來台的成名譯者人數有限，半數從事教職，隨政府來台的軍人、公務員、國營企業青年和流亡學生等亦逐漸加入翻譯行列，但總數仍遠不及幽靈譯者。戰後能夠立即從事翻譯的台籍文人稀少，幾位有中國經驗的台籍文人則扮演了重要的翻譯贊助人。筆者認為，大陸譯本在台灣長期而大量改名、匿名印行的事實至今未獲釐清，書目錯誤甚多亦未改正，對譯者主體性有極大傷害，導致論者與讀者缺乏史觀，既不明譯作出現的脈絡，也無從勾勒翻譯規範的轉變。學界實有責任釐清這段史實。|
This study aims to describe the translators who had book-length translations published in Taiwan during the period from 1945 to 1965. Taiwan had been a colony of Japan for half a century until 1945, thus few native Taiwanese could speak Mandarin or write modern Chinese based on Mandarin in the late 1940s. Books in modern Chinese, including translations, had to be imported from the mainland then. Unfortunately, after the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, translations by living translators in China became illegal according to the Martial Law of Taiwan. To avoid violating martial law restrictions, Taiwanese publishers were forced to either publish these “illegal” translations anonymously or under fabricated names. Until 1965, there were more than 200 ghost translators (living translators in Communist China) who had works circulated in Taiwan. Most of these translations were first printed in China in the 1930s and 1940s. Some well-known translators in China thus became ghost translators in Taiwan for decades, even after the lift of the Martial Law in 1987. Exiled translators, who came to Taiwan with the KMT government in the late 1940s, were the second biggest group after the ghost translators. Some translators were established before 1949, others began their careers as translators during their exile. Most exiled translators were either teachers in universities or high-schools, or employees of the army, government or state-run enterprises, including media. Very few native Taiwanese published translations before 1965. This study finds that from 1945 to 1965, 97% of the translators in Taiwan’s published translations either lived in China (ghost translators) or came from China (exiled translators). Native Taiwanese only constituted 3% of the translators. It is obvious that without knowing the ghost translators and the context of their works, the field of translation history in Taiwan remains a chaotic mess. To clarify the history distorted by politics is the first step to understand the formation and shift of translation norms in Taiwan.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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