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Toward a Structural Model of L2 Language-Skill-Specific Anxiety
|Abstract:||發現特定語言技能焦慮(language-skill-specific anxiety)為第二(外)語語言焦慮研究領 域一項重要突破。自1990年代末期以來，鎖定聆聽、口說、閱讀、或寫作等某特定語言 技能焦慮的研究已相當豐富。然而，第二(外)語語言技能焦慮彼此間，以及與一般性的 語言焦慮間之關係如何，卻仍待釐清。釐清上述問題一方面有益於理解語言焦慮的特 質，更有助於語言焦慮理論的建構和突破。因此，本研究主要目的便在透過結構方程模 式(Structural Equation Modeling)的統計技術來檢視各第二(外)語聽、說、讀、寫焦慮間的 關係，並建構一個語言技能焦慮結構模式，進而檢驗該結構模式在不同族群(國中生、 高中生、和大學生)間的穩定性。然而，鑑於目前具信、效度證據的第二(外)語聆聽、口 說、閱讀、和寫作焦慮量表過長，在執行結構方程式分析時造成參數估計的困難，而且 部分量表內容又不適合國、高中學生，本研究擬先編製更合適的焦慮量表。整個計畫將 用兩年時間完成：第一年先依據Lang (1971)的三元焦慮理論編製英(外)語聽、說、讀、 寫焦慮量表，使每一語言技能焦慮量表都涵蓋生理感應、認知、以及行為三個構面，藉 此形成各語言技能焦慮的三個指標變數(indicator)。第二年則將先驗證各個語言技能焦慮 構念之測量模式，進而比較四個假設的語言焦慮結構模型，以尋求最佳的語言技能焦慮 結構模型，最後將檢視該結構模型的跨組穩定性。|
The identification of language-skill-specific anxiety is an important breakthrough in the field of language anxiety research. Since the late 1990s, there has been much research on L2 learners’anxiety over listening, speaking, reading, and writing. However, it remains unclear how the four language-skill-specific anxieties relate to each other and to other forms of language anxiety. An understanding of their relationships will contribute to a better knowledge about the nature of language anxiety and probably a refined theoretical model of language anxiety. This research project is thus designed to examine the relationships among the four language-skill-specific anxieties and general language anxiety, with the goal to identify a structural model of language anxiety that best fits the empirical data. Invariance of the model will further be tested across students of three educational levels: junior high, senior high, and college. The project will last two years. In the first year, a set of listening, speaking, reading, and writing anxiety scales will be developed to address two major problems of using existing language-skill-specific anxiety scales in this study: (a) These scales contain too many items, making it difficult to estimate the model successfully in structural equation modeling; and (b) some of the scale items cannot reflect the experiences of all three groups of learners to be involved. The new scales will be designed according to Lang’s (1971) tripartite framework of anxiety, with each scale reflecting three dimensions of anxiety responses (i.e., physiological, cognitive, and behavioral). The three dimensions will then constitute three indicators of each language-skill-specific anxiety construct under study. In the second year, the measurement models of the four newly developed anxiety scales will be tested, and four hypothesized models of the relationships among the language-skill-specific anxieties and general language anxiety will be compared via structural equation modeling techniques. The invariance of the structural model that fits the data best in the previous analysis will then explored via multiple-group structural equation modeling.
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