Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/77345300/43689
Title: 儒典採借與和魂形構─以《憲法十七條》的用典、化典所作的考察
Adopting from Confucianism and Constructing the Japanese Spirit: The Allusions and Transforming in the Seventeen-article Constitution
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學國文學系
金培懿
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2011
Publisher: 國立成功大學中國文學系
Abstract: 歷來對制定於隋唐時期的聖德太子(574-622)《憲法十七條》之研究,多從考察其採借、援用儒典等漢籍之情形,而來論說聖德之儒學思想。然一言以蔽之的「出典」、「用典」,歷來研究者並未提供一個確切定義,以說明其判斷某條憲法之語句出自某書的準據究竟為何。本文有鑒於此,主張以錢鍾書(1910-1998)《談藝錄》中論及有關王荊公用韓昌黎詩典之法,即:「語典」、「意典」、「勢典」,作為斷定《憲法十七條》採借漢籍之判準。又筆者以為「語典」者,乃詞彙之所從出也;「意典」者,乃理心之所貫通也;「勢典」者,乃句式之所仿效也。本文以此為準據,主要以首條憲法為例,考察《憲法十七條》採借、援引《論語》等漢籍之情形、方法,試圖客觀說明其用典情形。指出:「語典」、「勢典」同,則「意典」多同;而「勢典」同則「意典」、「語典」或有改易;又「意典」同則「語典」、「勢典」或有改易。唯《憲法十七條》對儒典等漢籍之採借,亦有「語典」、「勢典」同但「意典」卻有出入者,甚或「語典」、「勢典」截然相異,但「意典」符合者,筆者主張可將之視為「化典」。本文後半則進一步釐清此種具有複雜結構的漢籍語句之採借法,其實是為了形塑所謂天皇獨尊、萬世一系之特殊日本「國體」,收束日本臣民之忠誠指向於擬血源關係之父祖的天皇,強調背公忘私、忠孝一致的道德價值,達成外來文化對顯下覺察所謂日本之所以為日本的「和魂漢才」意識,以確立日本的主體認識與自我定位,而聖德太子恰是「和魂漢才」的代表典型。最後則從《憲法十七條》採借儒典的作法,說明儒典的異地權威化其實與經典之所以成立的條件有關,並從歷來對聖德太子的兩極評價,說明日本儒學/漢文學與生俱來的宿命性雙重性格,指出吾人在研究日本或者東亞儒學/漢文學時,必須如何嚴肅以待,以及在研究中國傳統文化時,注意到他者景觀與差異發現對研究的重要性。
This article aims on the allusion and adopting from Confucian ancient of the Seventeen-article constitution by Qian Zhongshu’s analysis. The previous study on Prince Shotoku’s the Seventeen-article constitution usually discussed on Prince Shotoku’s Confucian thought by observing its allusion and adopting from Confucian ancient. But they did not define the “allusion” to explain the basis that used to find out the adopted ancient. Qian Zhongshu had analyzed the method of allusion into “word allusion”,“meaning allusion” and “form allusion” in his On the Art of Poetry. I think that the “word allusion” is the source of the quotation in an article, the “meaning allusion” is to understand the author’s message thoroughly, and the “form allusion” is to copy on form. If the “word allusion” and “form allusion” part in article are the same with the original text, then the “meaning allusion” part are usually the same, too. And if the “form allusion” part are the same with the original text, then the “word allusion” and “meaning allusion” part may be changed, or if the “meaning allusion” part are the same with the original text, then the “word allusion” and “form allusion” part may be changed. But in the allusion and adopting from Confucian ancient of the Seventeen-article constitution, we can see that the “word allusion” and “form allusion” part in article are the same with the original text but the “meaning allusion” part are different, or the “word allusion” and “form allusion” part in article are different with the original text but the “meaning allusion” part are the same. This kind of phenomenon can be seen as a transform. This complex allusion of the Seventeen-article constitution was for construct the state system to shows the authority of Tenno and to let the Japanese be loyal to father-like Tenno. This thought emphasizes the public and the sameness of the loyalty and the filial piety to come to the consciousness of the Japanese spirit imbued with Chinese learning to shows the essence of Japan. Prince Shotoku is a typical case of the Japanese spirit imbued with Chinese learning. Confucian ancient’s authority in other country is related with the condition of the birth of the ancient. When we study on Japanese or East Asia sinology, we should take care the influence from the other and the difference.
URI: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/handle/77345300/43689
ISSN: 1817-0021
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0121_01_014
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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