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Immigrant Carers---How to Make Employment and Care Responsibilities Compatible?(III)
|Abstract:||自二十世紀末，遷移已經成為全球普遍現象。過去十餘年來，新移民已經逐漸成為台灣人口發展的特色之一，台灣的新移民主要是來自中國和東南亞國家，這些新移民主要是透過婚姻關係移居台灣，但女性與男性移民明顯不同。近年來逐漸增加的離婚率也引起各界關注，在2008年約有三分之一結婚對偶訴請離婚，但高達二分之一跨國婚姻對偶訴請離婚。明顯的，跨國婚姻的離婚率遠比本籍離婚率高。面對此一社會發展趨勢，我們關心新移民單親母親在日常生活中將面對何種照顧與工作共容的壓力？她們運用何種策略平衡工作與照顧需求? 整體而言，本研究著重於探討新移民在日常生活中的家庭照顧壓力，並深入探討新移民運用何種策略平衡工作與照顧需求，這些策略運用是否受到性別、家庭結構、支持系統、階級、都會或農村、和單親或非單親因素影響。本研究為期三年，第三年研究計畫主要是結合深度訪談與焦點團體訪談，探討男性與女性新移民單親母親的工作與照顧共容經驗。除此之外，在第三年研究過程亦將彙整前兩年研究結果與整合型研究中之其他子計畫進行比較分析，同時也將與跨國整合型研究中之部分研究進行比較分析。 簡言之，本研究目的有下列幾項： 一、勾勒女性新移民單親母親在日常生活中家庭照顧的經驗。 二、探討女性新移民單親母親就業與照顧共容之策略運用。 三、探討男性新移民在日常生活中家庭照顧與就業的經驗。 四、探討男性新移民對自我角色的認定。 五、比較男性與女性新移民照顧與就業經驗之異同。 六、比較女性新移民單親與非單親母親照顧與就業經驗之異同。 七、比較新移民與本籍智障子女照顧者之異同。 八、比較台灣與英國男性在照顧與就業經驗之異同。 九、比較台灣、英國與芬蘭新移民在照顧與就業經驗之異同。 十、提供意見做為規劃發展友善家庭政策之參考。 十一、拓展女性主義對於新移民之就業與家庭照顧共容的理解。 十二、提供有關新移民的認同、就業與家庭照顧共容之策略、就業與家庭照顧壓力、日常生活照顧經驗與福祉等指標，做為未來建構跨國(四國-台灣、芬蘭、英國與瑞典)調查研究發展標準化問卷之參考依據。|
Migration has become a global phenomenon since the end of 20th century. Increasing migration has become one of the prominent demographic features of Taiwan over the last twenty years. In Taiwan, immigrants from China and South-East Asia mainly via transnational marriage; however, differences exist between genders but have been largely ignored by both academic researchers and policy makers. In addition, increasing divorce rate have drawn attentions from scholars and governments over the past twenty years. In 2008, about one-third of Taiwanese couples filed divorced, whereas half of transnational married couples appealed to divorce, so there is a higher divorce rate among transitional marriages than general population. This raises questions: What are the impacts faced by immigrant single mothers in everyday live in regard to work-care balance? What are the strategies utilized by immigrant single mothers to reconcile work and childcare? Overall, this study is interested in investigating the circumstances that immigrants face in providing care for family members including children, older persons, and persons with disabilities. Additionally, this study addresses the strategies of reconciling work and unpaid family care by immigrants in terms of their original countries, genders, spouses’ family structure, class, geographic areas, and single/non-single mothers Based on a combination of qualitative in-depth interview and focusing group, this study in the third year aims to investigate male and single immigrant parent families’ experiences of the reconciliation between work and care. In order to understanding the similarities and differences among different population in Taiwan and across nations, this study also compare with other sub-projects in our integrated project and with international integrated project, in particular with male as well as immigrant projects in Britain and Finland to explore the similarities and differences in experiences of work-care balance. Therefore, the purposes of this study in the third year are: 1. What are the care work and work conditions among female immigrant single parents? 2. What are the strategies used by female immigrant single mothers to reconcile unpaid care and paid work? 3. What are the care work and work conditions among male immigrant carers? (with international project) 4. Are male immigrants identifying their role with regarding working carers or caring workers? (with international project) 5. What are the similarities and differences between male and female immigrant carers? 6. What are the similarities and differences between female immigrant single parents and non-single parents? 7. What are the similarities and differences between immigrant carers and general Taiwan women in providing care for children and older people? (with sub-project 3&4)? 8. What are the similarities and differences of informal care between immigrant carers and carers of people with ID? (with sub-project 5) 9. What are the similarities and differences of male immigrant carers between Taiwan and Britain? (with international project)) 10. What are the similarities and differences of caring experiences among immigrant carers in Taiwan, Finland, and Britain? (with international project) 11. To provide suggestions, based on Finland and Britain experiences, for developing Family-Friendly Social Policies in the face of ageing society and declining childbirth rate of Taiwan. 12. To extend knowledge of feminist thoughts and gender studies related to immigrants’ reconciliation of paid work and unpaid family care from multicultural backgrounds. 13. To provide indicators of immigrants’ identities, strategies of work-home balance, and well-beings for constructing a standardized questionnaire for international collaborative survey in Taiwan, Finland, Sweden and Britain. (sub-item questions submitted to sub-project 1 & international project-survey group)
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