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Title: 高一學生地球科學問題解決能力與其先備知識及推理能力關係的初探研究
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2002
Publisher: 花蓮市:中華民國科學教育學會
Abstract: 本研究之目的在編製地球科學「問題解決能力測驗」及「先備知識測驗」等量表,並藉此兩工具及現有之推理能力相關測驗,探究目前高中學生之問題解決能力與其先備知識及推理能力間的關係。研究者依據「創造性問題解決」的模式,設計以地球科學為學科背景脈絡的「問題解決能力測驗」,其中包含「發散性思考」與「收斂性思考」兩向度。此外,亦針對此「問題解決能力測驗」所需之先備知識而編製對應之「先備知識測驗」,其中並包含「學生對問題解決能力測驗」喜歡程度之1題單選題。本研究以台灣東部某國立高中一年級學生為研究對象,有效樣本共260人。研究設計採用相關研究法及半結構武的晤談。量的資料分析主要採皮爾遜積差相關及多元逐步迴歸分析法,質性資料則經由編碼與三角校正後進行分析,以進一步了解學生對「問題解決能力測驗」及「先備知識測驗」的看法與觀感。研究結果如下:一、研究工具之「問題解決能力測驗」總分與「發散思考」(r=.814,p<.001)及「收斂思考」向度(r=.898,p<.001)均有高度相關,且評分者信度達.813~.965。「先備知識測驗」之信度KR20介於.60至.63之間;二、學生問題解決能力與其先備知識(r=.482,p<.01)及推理能力(r=.435,p<.01)間均接近顯著之中度正相關及大的效果量(effect size),且「先備知識」、「推理能力」及「對問題解決的態度」對「問題解決能力」有顯著的預測力(解釋率達R2=.343),而「先備知識」與「推理能力」對「發散思考」和「收斂思考」亦有顯著的預測力(解釋率達R2=.172~.332),接近或具有大的效果量;三、推理能力與「發散思考」間有大的效果量的關係,而先備知識與「收斂思考」間亦有接近大的效果量的關係;四、晤談後發現學生認為「先備知識測驗」須仰賴「知識」、「態度」、「經驗」的多寡,而「問題解決能力測驗」則須「知識」、「態度」、「思考」與「經驗」的完備,其結果與量的分析頗為一致。據此,我們認為高中學生先備知識及推理能力的增強,應有助於提升他們在地球科學上的問題解決能力。尤其在「發散思考」上更應著重在「推理能力」的培養,而「收斂思考」應更強調「先備知識」的建立。
The purpose of this study was to develop the Problem Solving Ability Test (PSAT) and a matching Domain-Specific Knowledge Test (DSKT) that covers the basic knowledge central to the PSAT, with the aims to investigate the interrelationship between students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in the area of earth science. The PSAT was constructed based on the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) model, which emphasizes students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales. The sample consisted of 260 tenth-grade students enrolled at a national senior high school in the eastern region of Taiwan. Quantitative analyses employed Pearson-product-moment correlation and stepwise multiple regression method. Qualitative data were acquired through semi-structured interviewing with coding and triangulation procedures to explore students' perceptions toward the PSAT and DSKT in greater depth. Results are as follows: (a) The overall scores of the PSAT are highly correlated with both the subscales of DTA (r =.814,p<.001) and CTA (r=.898,p<.001) with an inter-rater reliability ranged from .813 to .965. The reliability of the DSKT (KR20) ranged from .60 to .63; (b) A significantly positive correlation existed between students' PSA and their DSK (r= .482,p<.01) and RS (r= .435,p<.01) with medium to large effect sizes. In addition, students' DSK, RS and attitudes toward problem solving (ATPS) significantly predict their performance on the PSAT (R2=.343). Students' DSK and RS also predict their performance on the DTA and CTA subscales of the PSAT (R2=.172~.332), approaching large effect sizes; (c) Students' RS are more significantly correlated with their DTA (large effect size) and students' DSK are more significantly correlated with their CTA (toward large effect size); (d) Semi-structured interviews revealed that students' perceived knowledge, attitudes and experiences are essential in scoring high on the DSKT; while students thought that knowledge, attitude, thinking, and experiences were fundamental to better performance on the PSAT. The results of qualitative analyses are generally in line with the findings of quantitative analyses. It is, therefore, suggested that teachers should be able to improve students' problem solving performance through the enhancement of students' domain-specific knowledge and reasoning skills in earth science classrooms. Moreover, we should emphasize students' reasoning skills in developing divergent-thinking abilities, while stressing domain-specific knowledge in increasing students' convergent-thinking ability.
ISSN: 1027-507X
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_C0701_01_023
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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