Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/77345300/41345
Title: 一般兒童與自閉症兒童在不同溝通中斷類型之修補能力研究
Conversation Repairs in Different Communication Breakdown Contexts: Typically Developing Children and Autistic Children
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學人類發展與家庭學系
朱芳誼
張鑑如
Issue Date: 1-Nov-2011
Publisher: 臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系
Abstract: 本研究旨在瞭解一般兒童與自閉症兒童,在不同溝通中斷情境下的修補能力與策略類型表現。研究對象依年齡可分為學前和國小兩組,同年齡組以托尼非語文智力再版、修訂畢保德圖畫詞彙測驗甲式、兒童口語表達能力測驗得分進行能力配對。學前與國小組普通及自閉兒童各11名,合計44名。研究者以遊戲形式與受試者進行互動,並依半結構方式依序出現:「要求澄清」、「忽視」、「轉移」話題三種溝通中斷類型。每名受試者都需完成15道題項,計分方式為適當的修補策略得1分、不當反應則為0分。研究者並將兒童的反應進行編碼,類別包含「重複」、「添加訊息」、「提供修正」、「詞彙定義」、「主動延續話題」、「話題轉移」、「引起注意」、「展示」、「眼神注視」、「不當反應-自言自語」、「不當反應-未給予任何回應」和「不當反應-未轉移話題」12類。研究發現:一、所有兒童在「要求澄清」類型下的得分最高、「轉移話題」次之、「忽視」類型的得分最低,在特定情境中會使用優先策略進行修補。二、國小組一般兒童和自閉症兒童,在三項中斷類型的修補得分皆未顯著高於學前組。三、在「要求澄清」類型中,國小組一般兒童使用的修補策略類型數顯著高於學前組;自閉症兒童則無顯著差異。四、學前組與國小組自閉症兒童的三類中斷修補得分,都顯著低於學前組一般兒童。五、一般兒童及自閉症兒童皆有不適當的回應,但除了「未給予任何回應」和「未轉移話題」外,自閉症兒童還比一般組兒童多出了「自言自語」的不當回應現象。研究結果顯示,不論學前或國小自閉症兒童仍具有修補動機與意圖,只是品質較一般兒童不佳。研究者針對可能原因做一探討,並提出建議供教學實務與未來研究參考。
Purpose: This study compares how Mandarin-speaking children with autism and normally developing children repair communication breakdowns in various contexts. Method: Two groups of children participated in this study: autistic children (N=22) and typically developing children (N=22). Each group consisted of preschoolers (N=11) and first and second graders (N=11). All the children were asked to complete three standardized tests, including PPVT-R (verbal comprehension), the Children Verbal Expression Test (verbal expression), and the TONI3 (nonverbal IQ) to understand their verbal skill and IQ. The children were also asked to interact with the experimenter in a play, a semistructured context where three communication breakdowns, request for clarification, non-acknowledgment, and topic shift, occurred. Children’s strategy to repair communication breakdowns was scored with either one point for an appropriate response or zero point for an inappropriate response. Their response was also coded into twelve categories, including repair, addition, recast, definition, spontaneous topic continuation, topic shift, attention, showing, eye contact, inappropriate strategy-monologue, inappropriate strategy- no response, and inappropriate strategy-no topic shift. Fifteen communication breakdown items were assessed in total. Findings: All children received higher mean scores in the request for clarification context than they did in the topic shift (second highest) and non-acknowledgement contexts (lowest). No significant difference was found in communication breakdown scores between the preschoolers and the first and second graders for both the group of autistic children and the group of typically developing chilren. In the context of request for clarification, the typically developing first and second graders used significantly more repair strategies than the preschoolers did. No significant difference, however, was observed between the preschoolers and the first and second graders with autism. All of the preschoolers, first graders, and second graders with autism received significantly lower scores in the three communication breakdown contexts than the typically developing preschoolers. Both the group of autistic children and the group of typically developing children used inappropriate strategies to repair communication breakdown. Other than the no response and no topic shift, the children with autism also used monologue to repair communication breakdown, which was not observed in normally developing children. Conclusion: Results of this study show that the preschoolers, first graders, and second graders with autism all have the intention and ability to repair communication breakdowns to some extent, but their repair strategies are more limited compared to typically developing children. Educational implications for improving the conversation repair ability in children with autism and suggestions for future research are discussed.
URI: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/handle/77345300/41345
ISSN: 1026-4485
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_A0306_01_003
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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