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The Development of Examination Stress Scale for Junior High School Students
|Abstract:||考試壓力（examination stress）是全球的共同現象。然而，本研究發現以往的測量工具只將一般考試視為壓力源，並只將焦慮反應視為個人面對壓力時的反應。因此，本研究擬擴充考試壓力概念之下的壓力源以及個人反應，並編製「中學生考試壓力量表」。本研究將考試壓力分為「生理焦慮反應」、「認知及行為反應」，以及「社會期待及社會比較知覺」等三個向度，進行考試壓力量表之編製。經由922位學生的預試以及2,291位學生的正式施測，三個分量表之內部一致性信度係數Cronbach's α分別為.90、.87以及.88，整份量表信度為.93，具有良好的信度。在效度方面，以驗證式因素分析檢視考試壓力的概念，結果顯示三個次向度的模式是可接受的模式，且比單向度模式佳。同時，在測量不變性的分析之中，本量表在不同性別之下具有測量不變性，此結果為本量表提供建構效度的證據。最後，本研究將針對考試壓力理論進行討論，並對未來研究方向提出建議。|
Examination stress is a common phenomenon in the world. However, previous measurement tools of examination stress had three limitations: limited perspective on stressors of and responses to examination stress; neglect of high school students as an important population suffering from examination stress; limited sample sizes for validating the psychometrical properties of the scales. Therefore, this present study proposed the Examination Stress Framework (ESF) to expand the construct of examination stress. In additionally, we constructed the Examination Stress Scale (ESS) for high school students. We defined three dimensions to develop subscales of examination stress: physiological anxiety, cognitive and behavioral responses, and perceived social expectation and social comparison. After administrating prior test to 922 junior high school students, we completed a revised version consisted of 27 items. Then we collected 2,261 junior high school students' responses of ESS to estimate scale reliability and to examine the construct validity. The Cronbach's α reliability of "physiological responses" was .90, .87 for "cognitive and behavioral responses", .88 for "perceived social expectation and social comparison", and .93 for total score. And it was found that three dimensions model of ESS was acceptable and better than one dimension model. The result was also support invariance of measurement by splitting sample by gender.
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