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Development and Assessment of Scales from the Theory of Planned Behavior--Illustration of Helmet Use among Adolescent Motorcycle Passengers
|Abstract:||過去應用計劃行為理論之研究已有很多，但卻很少有研究曾仔細去探討此理 論各成份量表之信、效度問題。由於此理論對於量表設計與計分方式都相當的顯 明，使得研究者易忽略這些量表的信、效度建立與評估。有鑒於國內很多學者紛 紛應用此理論來探討各種行為之際，實有必要去建立並評估這些些量表的信、效 度，以提供在應用此理論於實際時之參考。本研究實藉助於應用此理論在預測青 少年搭機車戴安全帽之時機，以評估這些量表之信、效度。臺灣地區八十五學年 度全體高中生為此研究之對象，而實際接受正式施測之有效人數為1,663人，並 分鄂選擇驗證性因素分析、多變項複相關分析與結構方程模式，以及Cronbach's α內部一致性信度係數等統計方法為建立效度與信度之指標。結果發現根據此理 論提出的概念建構與量表發展步驟，再配合開放式引導問卷庲設計這些量表，可 以在測量與理論上同獲得高效度與信度。然而，在測量上此理論這些量表在青少 年搭機車戴安全帽行為上之應用都是多向度的量表，是不同於過去所使用的方 式，而且隨後分量表之信度分析亦應個別的考量。至於在理論上由於青少年搭機 車未戴安全帽行為已成了習慣，所以此理論在預測效度上會有所限制。|
Many researchers paid considerable attention to the theory of planned behavior for understanding and predicting tealth-related behaviors, but they seldom discussed reliability and validity issues in operationalizing this theory. It was much so obvious for both the scale design and the scoring system that most of them ignored assessment of the reliability and validity of scales from this. Therefore, it is essential for those future applied behaviorists to develop and evaluate the scales based upon this theory, and it is the purpose of this study. This current study took advantage of the application of this theory ot predict the helmet use among adolescent motorcycle passengers. Sampled from all senior high schools of the academic year of 1996-1997 in Taiwan, sixteen hundred and sixty three students took those scales. The statistical methods, confirmatory factor analyses, multivariate multiple correlation analyses, structural equation models, and Cronbach's α internal consistency coefficients, were used for the validity and reliability of those scales. It was found that higher reliable and valid scales were developed, evaluated, and established exactly when those approaches upon this theory were followed, the open-ended questionnaire was utilized, and later, both pretests and formal tests were adminstrated. However, from the viewpoint of measurement, all of those multidimensional scales were greatly different from those scales used before. In addition, the predictive validity of this theory had a limitation to predict this behavior in wearing helmet because this behavior seemed to become habitual.
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