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Electrochromism is an important thin film technology currently used in the application of energy saving windows, which mainly utilizes the changes in the crystal lattice structure produced by the reduction or oxidization of transition metals oxide to form different colored/bleached states. One of its great characteristics is: EC coatings could bring a transparent glazing into a color-tinted glazing and then back to the original state when it is subjected to an on-off small voltage. This allows for the control of sunlight and heat entering through the windows to reduce the burden on air conditioning systems to achieve energy conservation. The WO3 thin films are prepared by the sol-gel method following the inorganic route. The precursor material will be analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and the structure will be assessed by XRD and FTIR. To make the coating gel, the based solid materials of precursor will be dissolved in isopropyl alcohol and critric acid will be used to as an organic ligand. The gel will be screen printed on ITO glass substrates to form WO3 thin films. Propylene carbonate (PC) is further mixed with LiClO4 for the preparation of electrolyte. After packaged into components, electric voltage is applied to the films to generate reduction or oxidization, which can obtain different colored/bleached states. Finally, the properties of the elcetrochromic devices, including optical density change, coloration efficiency, transmittance and specular reflectance will be analyzed and characterized by spectroscopy from ultraviolet to near infrared spectral region. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy analysis is performed to get a greater understanding of electrochromic mechanisms. The device is expected that will reach to: low cost, no pollution, small, mass production and environmental protection. As a matter of fact, precision screen-printing technology has been paid attention by high-tech industries such as solar cell, LCD and optoelectronic recently due to that can simplify the steps of process remarkably and helpful to mass production.
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