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Teaching Abstract Computer Science Concepts to High School Students: A Multiple-Perspective Approach
|Abstract:||本研究採取體驗式學習之精神，建立「體驗式資訊科學學習模式」(the Experiential-based Learning of Computer Science, ELCS)以幫助高中生學習抽象的資訊科學概念。ELCS 旨在針對「99 年高中資訊課程綱要」發展具有採用彈性、容易使用、由具體到抽象、及由觀察到動手驗證的數位化教材資源，透過如圖片、動畫、模擬、教學遊戲等各類型數位媒體傳達資訊科學概念之具體化的經驗與範例、提供反思觀察的情境、幫助建立抽象概念的概念模型、及提供學習者透過互動驗證想法的情境等的多元知識表徵內涵。ELCS 數位教材資源經由專家審核之品質評鑑結果顯示具有適切的教學設計品質，在學習目標、單元範圍、時間安排、具體經驗、觀察反思、建立抽象概念、及主動驗證等品質面向的得分，在5 等量表之表現上介於3.59 到4.24 之間。進一步分析發現，目標概念較具體的單元在學習目標、具體經驗、及觀察反思面向的品質表現優於目標概念較抽象的單元，顯示：針對較抽象的資訊科學概念的數位教材資源設計上，ELCS 應可再強化概念的具體性與明確性，才能幫助學習者有更順暢的知識轉換歷程並有效建構出資訊科學概念的多元化知識表徵。|
The instructional framework of Experiential-based Learning of Computer Science (ELCS) was developed based on the experiential learning perspective to support high school students to learn abstract concepts of computer science through the construction of multiple perspectives. ELCS aims to provide teachers with flexible-to-adopt, ease-of-use, from-concrete-to-abstract, and from-observation-to-experimentation digital materials on computer science concepts to fulfill the High School Computer Curricula of Taiwan 2010. Various types of digital media, such as graphics, pictures, animations, simulations, instructional games, etc., were employed to provide multiple perspectives toward computer science concepts through examples of concrete experiences, contexts for reflective observation, conceptual models for abstract conceptualization and contexts for active experimentation. A preliminary evaluation of expert review revealed that the ELCS materials were appropriately designed with average scores ranging from 3.59 to 4.24 on a 5-point scale for the quality aspects of objectives, scope-been-covered, time allocation, concrete experiences, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. A further analysis showed that the concrete-concept units achieved better quality than the abstract-concept units in the quality aspects of scope, concrete experiences and reflective observation. Further efforts were suggested to improve the concreteness and explicitness of the abstract-concept units of ELCS to facilitate the successful construction of multiple perspectives in the learners.
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