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Title: 清初耶穌會士衛方濟的人罪說與聖治論
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學東亞學系
Feng-Chuan Pan
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2012
Publisher: 新史學雜誌社
Abstract: 本文探討清初耶穌會士衛方濟(François Noël, 1651-1729)《人罪至重》一書中的人罪說與聖治論。與艾儒略(Giulio Aleni, 1582-1649)的《滌罪正規》一書所言之「滌於已犯之後」相為表裡,《人罪至重》一書目的在於「警人遠罪」與「禁於未犯之先」。不同於前書之側重罪的解除方法與禮儀實踐層面,衛方濟則是指出人罪的根源性,主張「修德必先遠罪」,使其罪論與中國修身觀接軌。在此根基之上,衛方濟暢論「聖治」為「天主、人、己」三角的和諧倫理關係為除罪後之「仁義」圓滿狀態。觀諸衛方濟後來出版的經典翻譯,呈現了從形上學式的論述到以禮儀為核心的倫理實踐式的轉變,作為其名下首見的《人罪至重》一書,內容已可約略看出這一趨向。此外,如果我們從明清之際中國天主教社群的告解儀式已經趨向形式化與機械化,以及同時期中國社會之懺悔氛圍的變遷脈絡來觀察,衛方濟在《人罪至重》一書中主張結合仁義兩端,強調心與禮並重,以求聖治之圓滿達成,在某種程度上,可以視為一種亂世中回歸古典與追溯本源的舉動。
This article explores the questions of sin and repentance as understood by the early Qing Jesuit François Noël (1651-1729) and presented in his book Renzui zhizhong (人罪至重, The Extreme Gravity of Human Sin). Unlike the book Dizui zhenggui (滌罪正規, Correct Rules Regarding the Sacrament of Penance, 1627) by Giulio Aleni, which emphasizes the absolution of sin and the practice of rites, Noël's book focuses on the origin or cause of sin. But like two sides of the same coin, Aleni's Dizui zhenggui speaks of "absolution after committing sin," whereas Renzui zhizhong aims at "warning against sin" and "prevention before committing sin." It contends that, "in order to acquire virtues, one must first keep away from sin." Noël's view allows the concept of sin to be linked with the Chineseteaching of xiushen (修身, self-cultivation). It further elaborates on the order of morality as the condition for the fulfillment of saintly governance, viz., the harmony of the triangular relationship between the Lord of Heaven, Others, and Self. The most well-known of Noël's works are his translations of the Chinese classics and his works on Chinese rites and philosophy. This book, which is the sole work written in Chinese under Noël's name, deals instead with the idea of sin. It is evident that the shift from a metaphysical mode of discourse to a moral and pragmatic one, which is obvious in his later translations, is already hinted at in this book. Furthermore, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the rites of confession practiced by the Catholic community in China had gradually become formalistic and mechanical; at the same time, a change also occurred in the penitential ethos in Chinese society. In this book, Noël stresses that "benevolence" (ren 仁) and "righteousness" (yi 義) are the two poles, and the unity of "heart" (xin 心) and "ceremony" (li 禮) are the condition for the consummation of saintly governance. This can be seen as an act ofreturning to the classics and to origins in times of chaos.
ISSN: 1023-2249
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_H0205_01_013
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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