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Title: 對外華語之古典詩歌多媒體「情境再現」教學法
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學華語文教學系暨研究所
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2012
Publisher: 臺北市:華文世界雜誌社
Abstract: 隨著華語躍身為世界重要語言之一,中國古典詩歌亦成為全球許多大學東亞系與漢語系的必開課程。然而,以華語為第二語言或外語的學生,對於華語傳統文化與文學欠缺認知的「圖式」,即使辛苦理解了字詞句意,亦未必能順利組織全詩意涵,遑論領會意境與詩人情志。現有的對外華語詩歌教材與教法,仍以傳統的字詞句意解釋與母語翻譯法為主,對於二語學生領會意境的學習難點,鮮有探討。本文從中國詩歌傳統的創作觀與鑑賞觀拈出「意在言外」與「情景交融」兩大核心概念,並以此為理論基礎,指出中國詩歌的有效閱讀,應經歷「依詩思境」與「即境悟情」兩階段的審美認知過程,才能突破「意在言外」與「寓情於景」的符碼,進而體會深層的詩歌意境與詩人情志。對於華語母語學生而言,由於長期浸潤於華語文化環境,相關的認知「圖式」建構較為完整,其古典詩歌學習僅須教師與教材之點撥解說,即容易由「依詩思境」進展至「即境悟情」;但對於二語學生而言,由於欠缺華語文化想像的「圖式」,「依詩思境」實有困難,遂難達致「即境悟情」的體悟階段。本文因而設計「情境再現」之詩歌教學法,藉由電腦多媒體的情境動畫展演,還原作品情境,使二語學生得以「直觀」具象化的情境,以便其「依詩思境」,進而跨越至「即境悟情」的認知階段。據此總結對外華語的詩歌教學策略,應簡化字詞注解而強化情境感知,協助二語學生克服思悟詩境的難點,使之盡享詩藝之美,而免艱澀困頓之苦。
With the Chinese language's ascent into the world's most important group of languages, “classical Chinese poetry” has become an increasingly popular course in educational departments related to Chinese language and culture. However, for students learning Chinese as a second or foreign language, it is difficult to ap-preciate Chinese poems’ artistic ambiences (意境) and poets' emotions and aspi-rations (詩人情志) due to their lack of the target linguistic and cultural schema. Current Chinese poetry teaching materials and methods still traditionally empha-size the explanation and translation of phrases and sentences, which is actually of little benefit in addressing L2 students’ difficulties concerning poetry apprecia-tion. This article describes the Chinese poetic theories of “Implication beyond Literal Meaning” (意在言外) and “Integrating Feelings and Scenery” (情景交融) as core concepts in effective Chinese poetry reading. Based on these, the article addresses two steps in the cognitive process essential to decoding the poem’s im-plied meaning and hidden feelings and aspiration, which are “visualizing the poem’s artistic conception according to the text” (依詩思境) and then “revealing the speaker’s feeling and aspiration with the poem’s artistic conception” (即境悟情). Native speakers of Chinese effortlessly go through these two steps of the cognitive process, as the cultural cognitive schema is inherent in their upbringing. However, L2 students generally find difficulty in accomplishing the initial step of “visualizing the poem’s artistic conception according to the text”, let alone pro-gressing to the second step of “enlightening the speaker’s feeling and aspiration with the poem’s artistic conception”. To resolve this problem, the article develops the “situated representation” poetry teaching method, displaying each poem's ar-tistic concept through a situated animation. By intuiting the concrete setting, L2 students can more effectively approach the poems and accomplish the above-mentioned two steps of the necessary cognitive process. In summary, the ideal teaching strategy of classical Chinese poetry for L2 students emphasizes enlightenment of the artistic concept, instead of detailed explanations and textual research of the poem's vocabulary, thus enabling L2 students to successfully ex-perience poetic appreciation.
ISSN: 1811-8429
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_H0405_01_004
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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