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Title: 社會學習論的道德發展觀與教育
Other Titles: The Moral Development Views and Educations of Social Learning Theory
Authors: 沈六
Issue Date: Jul-1998
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系
Department of Civil Education and Leadership, NTNU
Abstract: 社會學習論者將道德視為道德行為。他們視人類天生是中性的,由環境決定一切,包括人格、氣質、興趣、與動機都是經驗的結果,且道德或不道德亦是經由學習而得。社會學習論者主張社會決定是非善惡;社會視其生存為最優先,故維持社會秩序就是最大的善;破壞社會秩序就是最大的惡;對社會有利的行為即是道德;對社會有害的行為即是不道德。道德或不道德行為與其他行為相同,都是環境制約的產物,亦就是可經由古典制約、工具制約、模仿、觀察、替代性作用、增強作用、認同作用、與辨別學習而得。社會學習論者藉兒童判斷標準的改變說明道德判斷發展的改變,而影響兒童判斷的重要因素隨情境不同而異。在一個特殊的社會情境中,道德判斷包含考慮與衡量各種不同標準的複雜歷程。社會學習論認為道德判斷因時間與情境的不同而其變項亦不同。兒童的主觀與客觀判斷會隨著情境不同而異,此種現象為學前兒童直到成人時期皆如此。家庭與學校的道德教育方法可藉觀察學習、模仿、控制環境、古典制約、刺激類化作用、反應類化作用、情緒類化作用、工具制約、行為改變技術、直接教導、家庭文化環境、系統減敏感法、楷模的示範作用等歷程,以養成兒童或學生的道德行為。
Social learning theorists believe that the society determines what is right and what is wrong, what is good and what is evil. Society takes as its highest priority its own survival, and for this reason the preservation of the social order becomes the greatest good and the destruction of the social order becomes the greatest evil. To be moral is to act in ways that benefit the society; to be immoral is to act in ways that harm the society. Moral behaviors are learned responses, and the learning does not differ in kind from the learning of all other behaviors. Moral behaviors are learned when the child is in a good environment. The amoral infant becomes capable of morality by training, example, reward, and punishment. By imitating the actions of appropriate models and by being reinforced for behaviors deemed bad by the society, the child learns to be a moral person. Consistent and extensive training in good behaviors will result in good habits that persist into adulthood. Social learning theorists account for developmental changes in moral judgments by changes in a child's criteria for judgment, such as intentions, clumsiness, amount of damage, and long-range consequences. Moral judgment involve a complex process of considering and weighing various criteria in a given social situation. Thus, moral judgment are expected to be much more variable from time to time and from situation to situation within a social learning framework. In some situations the child makes subjective judgment and in other situations makes objective judgments. This is true from preschool age through adulthood.
Other Identifiers: 8CD61B21-002E-4B13-B795-525002BAA404
Appears in Collections:公民訓育學報

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