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|Other Titles:||The Attribution Theory of Moral Development|
Department of Civil Education and Leadership, NTNU
|Abstract:||人類對道德發展的信念是以邏輯的組織連貫在一起的概念。實際上，人類會自動地將他們對道德思想和行動的常識性觀念組合成潛意識的理論結構，心理學家就稱之為先驗心理學或常識心理學，而此心理學所採用的分析方法，就是人類在道德衝突情境中歸因的方法，其結果被稱之為歸因論。此論提出心理機能的描述，人類就使用此種心理機能，直覺地解釋人類的道德發展。 本文以例證揭露歸因論的說法，提出人格特質、社會環境影響力、和超自然的力量等三方面的因素，說明人類的道德思考與行為。此三方面的因素以統整的方式產生互動，影響道德發展，且其發展在一生中依循生長的原則而發展。 人類的常識判斷認為遵守社會的法律、宗教學說或學術理論、和習俗就是合乎道德範疇，歸因論且深信智力、懲罰、良心、和楷模是道德發展的真實力量，其發展則經歷無知、學習社會行為規則、進入理性年代、和享受權利與負擔責任等四階段，但因人類的個別差別，其發展的速度則有不同。 雖然幾乎每人都依賴常識來解釋道德思考與行動，但是採用常識歸因方法，研究道德發展的學術著作為數甚為有限，所以，在許多方面，常識的歸因論無法適當地解釋道德發展的問題，學術領域也就對此理論不甚滿意，也由於不滿意，提供了探究更正式的理論之充分的刺激力。|
The unidentified and supernatural forces are luck, chance, fate, destiny, “it just happens” and supernatural forces: God, Satan, spirits, astrological configurations to which people appeal when they are unable to explain moral events in terms of personality properties and aspects of the environment. None of these components operates alone. Instead, the factors exert their influence by interacting in complex ways. Commonsense observations of child growth have produced six widely accepted beliefs about moral development called growth principles. The principles can influence children's understanding of moral events and can affect their ability to act in morally acceptable ways. There are three sources of the kinds of behavior that people's commensense judgement locate in the moral doctrine, and cutom is judged to be moral. Behavior that breaches law, doctrine, or custom is deemed immoral. From the perspective of commonsense theory, people who subscribe to a version of attribution theory are convinced that intelligence, punishment, conscience, and modeling are real things, not just products of someone's imagination in moral matters. Within the attribution theory camp, one controversial issue is the question of children's inborn moral nature. But from the viewpoint of na?ve psychology, the moral development is to continue throughout the life span. From a commonsense perspective, the moral development can be divided unto four stages: very little understand right from wrong, to learn rules of social behavior, to enter “the age of reason, and to enjoy the privileges and to bear the responsibilities. In attribution theory, the personality characteristics and the seven environmental influence among individuals are considered particularly important differences in moral development. Although the attribution theory is the most popular of all moral-development theory, since nearly everyone depends on common sense for interpreting people's moral though
|Appears in Collections:||公民訓育學報|
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