Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: 羅傑斯[Carl Rogers]與斯金納[B. F. Skinner]「人」觀之比較研究
Other Titles: A Comparison between Carl Rogers' and B. F. Skinner's Views on 'Man'
Authors: 陳啟明
Issue Date: Mar-1996
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 教育與心理輔導工作,本質上都涉及「助人成長」的歷程。教師與輔導人員對「人」抱持何種想法與看法,將影響到他們實際助人的行為表現。如能提供某些思想大師們的「人」觀,讓教師與輔導工作者加以對照參考,藉此協助他們去反省、檢討與修飾自己原來對人「人」所持的看法,將十分具有價值,而這正是本研究的目的所在。羅傑斯與斯金納是美國當代相當著名的兩位心理學家,他們分別是「人文主義心理學」與「行為主義心理學」的代表人物。而他們的學說思想向來被公認為是互相對立的,同時也是極具爭議的。因此,本文就以他們的「人」觀來進行分析比較。在研究方法上,本研究採行了「理論分析」與「比較方法」。本文無意去論斷他們的是非對錯,也不想去評比他們見解的優劣高下。深入理解他們對「人」看法的異同。藉以釐清雙方的爭議,才是本研究的重點。本文從五個部分來加以陳述:第一,緒論;第二,羅傑斯的「人」觀;第三,斯金納的「人」觀;第四,兩種「人」觀的比較;第五,爭議與評論。研究發現,羅傑斯與斯金納「人」觀之間的主要差異,根源於他們相當迥異的學術立場與不同的研究途徑。羅傑斯採取「現象學」的主場,從「人的內在主觀心靈」來研究探討問題;而斯金納則採取「自然科學」的立場,從「人的外在客觀環境」來研究問題。這就好比我們看一個西瓜,如果從「外在」來看,他是乾的、光滑的、淺綠皮的、近乎圓形的、沒有香味的東西;但如果從「內在」來看,它卻又是濕的、充滿水分的、紅(黃)色果肉的、夾雜一些黑色種籽、帶有甜味的東西。同樣地,羅傑斯「內在」取向的立場,相對於斯金納「外在」取向的立場,無可避免地會各自論述出相當矛盾對立的「人」觀。本研究還發現到,唯有超越並融合他們兩人的見解立場與研究取向,才能掌握到人類行為與心靈的全貌。
Teaching and counseling are works involving a process that someone helps another to grow. How teachers and counselors think about‘man’will affect their actual helping behavior. The purpose of this study is to help teachers and counselors to reflect or inspect their own views about‘man’by providing them some great masters' perspective. Carl Rogers and B.F. Skinner are representative figures of Humanistic and Behavioristic psychology. Their paper tries to focus on the analysis of the similarities and differences between their views on‘man’. Theoretical analysis and comparative methods are used in this study. It is not the author's concern to point out whose view is right or better. The main concern is to make clear their controversies and misunderstandings. Five main parts are dealt with in this paper: 1. introduction; 2. Rogers' views about‘man’; 3. Skinner's views about‘man’; 4. similarities and differences between their views; 5. controversies and comments. It was found that the main differences between their views on‘man’ are originated from their different standpoints and approaches. Rogers took phenomenological approach. But Skinner took natural scientific approach. It is just like watching a watermelon. When watching it from outside, we easily consider it as a thing that is dry, smooth, green-rind, round, and without smell. While watching it from within, we consider it as a thing that is wet, sweet, red or yellow, and with some black seed inside. Similarly, Rogers from internal standpoint and Skinner from external standpoint, is inevitably led to different views. It was found that unless we can look beyond and combine these two approaches, we will not see the whole view of‘man’.
Other Identifiers: CD3E366B-0E6F-EA0C-AFCD-4CF1A5B86EE5
Appears in Collections:教育研究所集刊

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.