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|Title:||Reforms of Teacher Education Programs in Cultural Contexts|
Department od Education, NTNU
|Abstract:||本文係以文化意識之變遷為主軸，探討美、英、德及我國近年來的師資培育學程之改革。正如Ed. Spranger 所言，教育如缺文化意識，將淪為有限的技藝，H. A. Giroux更以師資培育學程係文化政治之重要一環。以此師資培育學程之改革實施反映了一個民族文化意識之變遷。西方早期的師資培育反映了以宗教為主導的文化意識。美國the Revexend Samuel Hall 的Normal School，英國A. Bell 和J. Lancaster 的導生學校以及德國August Hermann Francke在Hall大學所創教師研習班，均極富宗教色彩。中國傳統教師則與科舉考試制度結合，旨在傳遞儒家經典。不管中西，傳統教師培育均在於傳遞文化中的核心價值體系，以維護社會既有的穩定秩序。其所不同者，中國教師地位崇高，與天、地、君、親並列，西方教師地位低落，教學普遍被認為是失敗的一環（failure belt, W. Waller語），師資培育學程也予人以模稜兩可，平淡無奇，一再重複，無補於學術等不良印象。隨著工業化以及經濟發展，西方教師也開啟了一種新的文化意識而有提昇自己地位之要求，滿足此項要求的先決條件是把師資培育學程提昇到大學水準。在爾巴特思想（Herbartianism）以及實驗心理學的影響下，本世紀初以降，英、美、德等國均先後在大學或大學水準之訓練學院設置師資培育學程。然則，因於傳統文化意識不同，各國改革方向未盡一致。美國素富實用主義色彩，英國則以經驗主義和功利主義為宗，其師資培育學程規畫傾向實踐導向，德國則在傳統人文主義及新興實驗教育學的激烈爭論下，教育專業科目與學術性專門科目之間的平衡問題，迄為學界以及各邦師資培育學程規畫所難澈底解決。而赫爾巴特所奠定的兩階段式的師資培育學程之優劣得失最近也成為學界討論的焦點。至於我國近代師資培育學程之改革極富移植色彩，先是移植日本、普魯士，近宗美國制度，不管如何，均可視為對西方文衝擊之回應的重要環節。晚近在新的文化批判思潮下，西方各國的師資培育學程也有所回應，技術主義的師資培育遭到嚴厲的批判，指其有誤導師範教育為問題一解決技巧訓練之危險。批判反省或探究導向之師資培育課程在英、德等國均作試驗性的實施。實踐經驗的反省以及教師批判心靈培育實際上也在我國最近訂定的「發展與改進師範教育五年計畫」中，列入審慎的考慮。|
Education is according to Ed. Spranger（1928, pp. 176 ~177）a cultural phenomena. Theoretical pedagogy is therefore the scientific radio-scope of education as a peculiar cultural process. The main task of teacher training institute, the Bildnerhochschuhle proposed by Spranger, is accordingly t let the prospective teacher encounter cultural contents（Ed. Spranger, 1920）. The conduct of teacher education is structured, as Th. S. Popkewitz（1987, p. 2）correctly observes, by codes of culture which determine the ways in which“people think, see”, and act toward the practice of schooling. Teacher education is historically connected to the cultural codes which see the traditional teacher occupying crucial role to maintain a harmonious, static social order. Prior to the nineteenth century, the strictly professional program to train prospective teachers to reflect theoretically teaching activities did not exist in any country. In the Unite States the early teacher educators were ministers who thought to train those would inculcate the word of God in children. The monitorial schools created by A. Bell and J. Lancaster in England in the eighteenth century were also characterized by their religious orientation. In Germany pedagogical training was offered for the preparation of theologian in several universities early in the seventeenth century （Cuthmann, J. 1964）. Contrarily to the religious character of their western counterparts, the traditional Chinese teachers were associated not with religion, but with the traditional system of civil service examination. Their main task was to inculcate Confucian Texts on students' mind with special emphasis on the function of moral education （Yang, Shen-Keng, 1991）. So much in Western World as in China, the traditional teachers, though varied in features owing to their different cultural backgrounds, shared however the similar function to maintain the social stability.
|Appears in Collections:||教育研究所集刊|
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