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|Other Titles:||Eatablishment and Decline of Educational System in the Period of Chou Dynasty (Con)|
Department od Education, NTNU
A little more than one hundred years after the death of Confucius, one of his contemporaries, Mencius（372—287 BC）carried on and developed his school, the so—called Confuciuism. Through self—study of Confucius and Chinese classics, Mencius adopted Confucius’ thoughts and the basic Chinese philosophy from ancient till the later Chou Dynasty. In his book entitled Mencius clearly showed this approach. In addition, he advocated his own concepts about virtues, Man, politics and education. Among philosophical concepts of Mencius, one was the concept of human spirit of “Jen”（Benevolence）which was the spirit of Heaven and the Earth actualized in the creation of the universe. This was viewed as Tien—Tao in Chinese philosophy. Confucius derived Jen—Tao from Tien—Tao and Mencius made it clear with more explanations. The second concept of Mencius was that he emphasized the orthodox of Chun-Chiu（The Spring and Autumn Annals）and said that it threatened rebellions and wicked sons. The third concepts of Mencius was that like Confucius, Mencius disgusted those who showed honesty but not really were. Such a kind of people might be popular because they conform to the mass, but they were not in congruence with righteousness. Mencius had his own unique concepts also. At first, Mencius advocated Jen—Yu as the core of Jen—Tao and as the principle of Wang—Tao. The latter meant moral politics practiced by virtuous king or prince. Confucius had said that Jen was the love of mean while Mencius adopted it. Bust Mencius added Yi to Jen. Yi meant “ought to”and “ought not to”with regard to conduct. He said that everyone should behave according to Jen—Yi, so would the king and prince. He said：”One who I loves others is beloved, and one who respects others is respected. ”Furthermore, “the king of prince who loves his people and does the rights to his people is worshiped, and his nation or state will be in order and strong.” Mencius believed that human nature was good. He insisted that human nature w
|Appears in Collections:||教育研究所集刊|
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