Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/77345300/25262
Title: 理性的冒險、生命的行動及主體性的失落與拯救
Other Titles: Odyssey of Rationality, Act of Life and Fate of Subjectivity--Historical Development of Man's Self-Image and the Perspective of Educational Reform
Authors: 楊深坑
Issue Date: Mar-1996
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 本文旨在透過西方思想史的考察,探討西方思想中對於人的本質觀點之變遷及其與教育改革的關係。「人是什麼?」這個問題一直是西方思想史的核心課題,對此問題之不同解答也往往形成不同的教育規劃,而為教育改革的基礎。古希臘先蘇格拉底以降哲學思考突破神話的桎梏,以為人類內心的理性次序可以適切的認識世界的理性結構。人是理性的動物成為西方思想史的基本信念。然而理性的定義並非單一,辯士學派、蘇格拉底、柏拉圖和亞理斯多德就因對理性的不同看法而開展了殊異的教育改革規劃。理性在西方思想史的升沉起落有如奧德賽式的旅程,中世紀理性臣服於信仰之下,文藝復興以後人的尊嚴重新發現。啟蒙運動在人類理性光榮高唱入雲的同時,卻也有一股幽暗的意志哲學出現,以為生命無他,祇是一股盲目的意志與衝動而已。理性、意志、嗜慾、情感或是整體的精神,何者才是主宰人類生命的基本動力成為思想史上爭論不休的課題。對此不同的論見也具體落實到不同的教育改革。自然主義的教育、汎愛教育運動、藝術教育運動等都是這些爭論下的具體反響。1960年以降達到高峰的世界性現代化運動基本上承襲啟蒙運動「理性至上」「人定勝天」的信念,然而開展的卻是理性的工具性層面,流於其極則有滅絕人類主體性之危險。後現代主義走的卻是另一個極端,完全否定理性,聽任個體恣意而行。面對現代與後現代的爭衡,教育改革宜尊重專業精神,才能設計富於人文精神的教育規劃,以培育情理交融的健全人格。
This paper addresses itself to the historical development of man's self-image and implications for educational reform.“Man is animal rationale” has been the canonical definition of humanity in the western world since the time when ancient Greek philosophy broke through the mythical way of thinking. However, the rise and fall of rationality in the development of humanity is like the journey of Odyssey full of danger as well as bright perspective. Rationality experienced a gloomy phase in the Medieval Age when the religious authority dominated all the spheres of human life. As the Enlightenment philosophers adopted an optimistic attitude toward rationality, there also arose a pessimistic philosophy of will which deemed man as poor creature controlled by blind desire. Which one is the main force of the human life, rationality? Desire? Well? Feeling? Or the whole spirit? That is the focus of debates of the history of western thought. The different answers to this question had led to different proposals of educational reform. The“modernization movement”succeeded basically the optimistic stance toward rationality of the Enlightenment. Special emphasis is put on the side of calculation and efficient control of rationality in the movement of modernization with the consequence of destroying humanity by suppressing man's inner nature. It is the facing up to the self-indulged cul-de-sac of technocratic rationality of modernity that is evoked by the idea of postmodernity which reverses to the order extreme to negate completely rationality. Confronted with the tensions of modern rationality-monopoly and postmodern irrational“anything goes”,“respect for professionality” should become the motto of educational reform. Only the professionals can devise a far-sighted educational reform scheme full of humanistic tine that permits the realization of authentic, autonomous person.
URI: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw//handle/77345300/25262
Other Identifiers: 39B94693-4A83-03C3-B02A-BE0FA802F726
Appears in Collections:教育研究所集刊

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