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|Other Titles:||Metatheoretical Analysis on Normativity and Descriptivity of Pedagogical Methodology|
Department od Education, NTNU
|Abstract:||布蘭克茨（H. Blankertz）在「科學理論與科學實踐的關係論教育理論與教育實」一文中曾經指出，很少有任何學科像教育學那樣，在有限的理論命題中充滿了那麼多互相衝突的後設理論敘述（metatheoretische Aussagen）（註一）。這種情形之所以產生係由於教育學本身在整個科學體制中地位未臻穩固，其科學性格有待進一歩釐清，以致在其邁向科學化之途徑中充滿了危機。對於此種教育學危機早在一九三二年赫伯爾（W.HÖper）出版的「教育科學的危機」就已提出深切的反省。赫伯爾以為教育學危機的突破有賴於眾多理論中發現其自身的理論，能夠避免問題的雜湊堆積而尋繹一種符應科學對象性質的真正關係，以對於教育行動提供獨特而適切的導引（註二）。質言之，教育學危機的突破端賴於教育學本身獨特學術造型的形成，而這種獨特學術造型的形成有賴於教育學者站在後設理論的基點，對於研究對象與方法作一深度的方法論上的研究。|
Through historical approach and metatheoretical analysis this study attempts to expound the characteristics of methodology in educational science with a view to promoting the scientific place of pedagogy in academic disciplines.After a scrutinization of the recent studies on pedagogical methodology, this paper proceeds to a historical analysis of methodological controversies in educational science. It was J. Fr. Herbart who first tried to systematize the study of pedagogy. Focusing on the key─concept“Instruction”, Herbart applied ethics to the determination of educational aims and psychology to the determination of educational methods. Thus Herbartian pedagogy was lead to a kind of applied science.By the end of 19th century two paradigms were competiting in the educational research. Influenced by positivism and experimental psychology, W.A. Lay, E. Meumann, A. Fischer etc. proposed that pedagogy must be integrated itself to the concept of unified science in order to solidify its metatheoretical foundation on rigorous natural science. W. Dilthey and his followers on the other hand emphasized that in contrast to explanatory natural science, pedagogy, as Geisteswissenshaft, must start its study from the interpretation of the wholeness of life meaning. After 1960s under the influence of logical impiricism, thechnological end─means─model was extensively used in educational research. However this technocratic trend of education leads to the misuse of human rationality and thus raises severe criticism from critical theory. The advocates of critical theory emphasize emancipatory interest of knowledge in education and put autonomy and freedom from hegemony of technology and biased ideology as main educationed aims.The above─mentioned controversies in educational methodologies parallel to the historical transition of concepts of science and competiting scientific methodologies. Generally speaking, science before Imm. Kant was grasped by its objective structure or by the end─s
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