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Title: 美國全國教育目標執行策略之研究
Other Titles: Notes on the Implementation Strategies of the National Education Goals in the USA
Authors: 梁恆正
Issue Date: Jun-1992
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 美國布希總統在一九九0年一月三十一日參眾兩院合會議演說中,提出六項全國教育目標,以作為維動教育改革的準繩及方向。隨後,布希政府又於一九九一年四月間,進一步揭示執行聯邦教育目標之諸種措施。這一連串的教育政策之宣示,已實質看出布希總統正開始實踐其志在成為「教育總統」(Education President)的競選諾言(Bush, 1988)。布希的聯邦教育政策正在美國引起廣泛及熱烈的討論,這種由中央教育當局策劃推動的教育革新方案,是否隱含美國教育決策的主導權又已回復到聯邦政府?是否美國也像英國在一九八八年頒佈教育法案後,教育科學部擴增並進行大幅度的教育改革?如果答案是肯定的,那麼布希政府對聯邦政府教育政策的主張,顯然與其前任總統雷根主政時,所努力推動將教育的主控權由聯邦移轉到州政府及地方的策略大相逕庭。本文主要目的在澄清上述疑點,根據布希政府所研議全國教育目標的執行策略之分析,明確指出布希的聯邦教育政策係延續雷根主張教育分權化,而更落實地方主導的教育攺革。為期掌握此一教育政策及發展之方向,本文首先闡述布希所揭櫫之六大全國教育目標的背景因素及其內涵,其後探索達成目標所運用的各種策略,並深入分析這些執行策略所含蘊的教育改革理論及其意識型態。為此,本文亦就雷根主政以來之教育改革方案作一剖析,而英國最近以來教育改革所持之理念體系亦加以分析比較,以期對當前美國教育政策之發展有較清楚的認識。
The paper reviews the recent US federal initiatives on educational goals under the Bush administration. An historical account with this policy issue as well as its development for proposing implementation strategies are described. It thus intends to scrutinize the relationship between policy formation and policy implementation. The official documents of America 2000:An education strategy, released by the US Department of Education in 1991, are discussed at some length. The paper indicates that the strategy for implementing national education goals is nevertheless a federally─dominated approach in education policy. Based on the proposed programs, the current federal educational initiative is likely to be described as“bottom─up reform from the top─down” approach. The paper asserts that Bush carries on the former President Reagan's“ New Federalism” policy for decentralization. A comparison with the British educational policy development under the enactment of“National Curriculum” is also made for research interest. The paper concludes that the current US federal educational policy for national goals is more likely to stimulate the implementation in states and localities.
Other Identifiers: 1B04D58B-0202-BBC5-FD45-405A3C1F14D2
Appears in Collections:教育研究所集刊

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