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Title: 性惡與教育
Other Titles: Inherent Evil and Education
Authors: 趙雅博
Issue Date: Jun-1995
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學教育學系
Department od Education, NTNU
Abstract: 在中國哲學的論題中,有一個西洋哲學不大討論的問題,而在中國則是到現在還辨論不清的論題;那就是人性善惡的問題。西方哲學論人性,乃先多就知的方面來討論,或者就其與其他動物生物形物方面的不同性方面提出,有關善惡方面,則只是從人性中構成要素之一的意志論題,而不從「性」本身本質或行為之性方面說明。人性問題,雖然我們可以說,在中國古代哲學家中,大都談到,然而明明白白的提出性學,來討論其行為之善惡的,恐怕只有儒家、法家、墨家、老莊等家,也都涉及到人性善惡,但很少指出「性」字來討論。先秦儒家的首創者,孔丘先生對性善性惡,並沒有從人性上說明善或惡,我們如果就他的「性相近也,習相遠也」的說詞看來,人之性惡性善乃是不一定的,只是從他的所習的性質而定,習在這裡,應該是後天的學習、習慣、積習、習行,這也彷彿墨子所說染。染於善則善,染於惡則惡,但如果就孔子對人的普遍肯定來說,似乎應該說性是善的,他說,「人之生也直」(雍也),並兩次說:「舉直錯諸枉,則民服」,(先進),「舉直錯諸枉,能使枉者直」(顏淵),人們喜歡直,直是正直,是一種美德,人好德,應該說是人性向善,但孔子並未說明人性好直,孟子則直接提出了四個善端,也是說人性向善,並沒有說人性本質是善,荀子則說是人性惡,說性有向惡之端,他也沒有提到人性本身本體是惡,談人性善惡,務必要注意這一點:人性本質是善惡(對倫理道德之善,或本體之善,要分別清楚),或者是在行為方面向善向惡,不然問題在解決方面並無法能正確而真實的。
HSUN TSU was convinced that men were inherently evil and would struggle to secure whatever profitable to them. However, the same men might do good deeds if they were first made known to the fact that these undertakings would be truly beneficial to such doers. And this was how education became an indispensable matter. To teach people to do good deeds, fine teachers are needed. On the one hand, they will make themselves noble examples for people to live up to, and on the other hand, they are to impart the knowledge of etiquettes, rules and moral codes to people who will in turn accept such bindings and strive for good. It is not impossible for a man to do good because he loves rich and prosperity but loathes poverty and evil. Once a man learns of what he is to be rewarded by following etiquette, rules and moral codes to suit his purpose, he will have no choice but to do good.
Other Identifiers: 19C1B374-B17B-6415-AB08-2E358C2DC706
Appears in Collections:教育研究所集刊

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