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Title: 漢文帝「遺詔」透顯的視域
Authors: 洪錦淳
Issue Date: Sep-2005
Publisher: 國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 帝王遺詔通常涉及權力轉移的問題,帝王本人雖已「大行」,但其遺詔還是持續發生效應,史書對遺詔產生的影響自然要留下記錄。筆者流覽《史記》全書,發覺帝王「遺詔」凡出現七筆,其中兩筆述及秦始皇遺詔始末,一筆是呂后遺詔,兩筆與漢景帝有關,一筆是竇太后遺詔,一筆則是漢文帝遺詔。另有一筆雖不名之為「遺詔」,又等同「遺詔」的,即漢高祖病危時,絳侯周勃受詔於床下一事。其他遺詔,史遷只交代其內容大要,獨獨文帝遺詔,列出全文。以史遷作史思考之縝密、細膩,特地標舉文帝遺詔自有特殊用意。研究文帝遺詔,我們可以理解史遷如何設線索、埋伏筆來澄清文帝的思想歸趣,進而探究文帝政治生涯所呈現的生命風格,以及文帝書寫在史遷史學上的作意。
The emperor's last testament usually involved the power-transferring problem. Although the emperor himself had “passed away,” his last testament still continued being effective. Hence, the history must leave records of the influence of the last testament naturally. The author browsed through “The Historical Records,”and found that there were seven data about emperor's “last testament.” Among them, two described the whole story of the last testament of the First Emperor of Cm Dynasty, one was the last testament of Queen Lyu, two related to Emperor Jing of Han Dynasty, one was the last testament of Queen Dou, and one was the last testament of Emperor Wun of Han Dynasty. Besides, there was one that was not named the “last testament” but equal to the “last testament.” That was the last testament of Gao Zu (founder) of Han Dynasty. He summoned Thou, Bo, Marquis Jiang to kneel accepting the last testament beside his bed when he was about to die. For other emperor's last testaments, Ssu Ma, Chien only explained the gist of the content; only the last testament of Emperor Wun, he recorded the full text. Ssu Ma, Chien's thought of writing the history was meticulous and minute. Therefore, he must have a special intention to manifest the last testament of Emperor Wun in this way! To study the last testament of Emperor Wun, we can comprehend how Ssu Ma, Chien supplied the clues and gave the hints foreshadowing later developments to clarify Emperor Wun's thought, and explore Emperor Wun's style of life presented in his political career, and Ssu Ma, Chien's purpose of describing Emperor Wun on history further.
Other Identifiers: 86EFB0F7-0ABE-9DB6-E72A-0DC2E86E38A7
Appears in Collections:中國學術年刊

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