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Title: 敦煌講史變文中的祭祀敘述及其與祭祀活動之關係
Other Titles: Dunhuang historical bianwen and the activity of worship
Authors: 楊明璋
Yang, Ming-chang
Issue Date: Mar-2014
Publisher: 國文系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 敦煌變文中的祭奠神鬼敘述,有二種類型:一是做為提供信息資訊的祭祀敘述,以講經變文為多;二是做為故事情節的祭祀敘述,以講史變文為多。後者尤值得關注,像〈伍子胥變文〉、〈孟姜女變文〉、〈漢將王陵變〉、〈王昭君變文〉、〈韓擒虎話本〉等五本講史變文,一方面藉祭祀情節以渲染故事、人物的悲壯與哀傷情調,一方面也藉賦誦祭文對故事裡的主要角色予以總結性的評述,甚至引出整個故事的要旨。相對於敦煌講經變文,講史變文的儀式性是較淡、娛樂性是較濃的,縱然如此,也不能完全否定部分講史變文與祭奠神鬼儀式的關係。在唐五代,表演伎藝往往伴隨宗教齋會儀式,甚至喪葬祭祀也有英雄故事的伎藝表演,流衍至後代,許多的戲劇演出也結合齋會道場、祭奠神鬼儀式,且演出的故事主題也多為英雄神鬼。另外,若干敦煌寫本抄錄〈伍子胥變文〉、〈韓擒虎話本〉、〈前漢劉家太子傳〉等講史變文的同時,也抄寫齋願文、讚文等宗教應用文書。這些都表明了部分的敦煌講史變文與祭祀活動應是有所關聯的。
There are two types which narrating worship to gods and ghosts in Dunhuang bianwen. One type is the offering of information. The other type is the description of plot, which is worth paying attention especially-- Wu Zi-XU bianwen, Meng Jiangnu bianwen, Han Jiang Wang-Ling bianwen, Wang Zhao-jun bianwen, and Han Qin-Hu huaben, for example. These five historical bianwens exaggerate sorrowful sentiment by the plot of worship; meawhile, recite funeral oration to comment on main roles and deduce the drift of story. Even though historical bianwen has entertaining inclination, it is relative to ceremony of worship. In Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, performing arts go along with the ceremony of memorial services; still more, there is performing art of heroic story in funeral. Extending to later ages, there are many dramas go along with the ceremony of memorial services, and the dramas are about heroes, gods and ghosts. In addition, Wu Zi-XU bianwen, Han Qin-Hu huaben, and Chian-Han Liou Jia Tai-tz juan have transcriptions of zhaiwen and hymns. Therefore, Dunhuang historical bianwen is relative to the activity of worship.
Other Identifiers: 7605D0AF-39C2-EDAA-811A-0A72E7C4B93F
Appears in Collections:中國學術年刊

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