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Title: 由張載、朱熹形上思維的分歧論其功夫重心的移轉
Authors: 侯潔之
Issue Date: Sep-2005
Publisher: 國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 張、朱二儒的人性論與功夫論皆在宇宙論的基礎上發展而成,且其二者之宇宙論又深受《易》的影響,唯詮解「神」義不同,造成內部義理型態的全盤迥異。在張載,從「神」的作用歸屬,確立了「太虛」高於「氣」的形上地位,則「太虛」與「氣」便在體用關係上,劃開了形而上與形而下的層次。展現在實踐意義上,功夫進路必成歸返心性一途,於是重心便落在對太虛之心的把握上。朱熹與張載相同,依宇宙論間架下貫於人,決定了心性論的義理結構。但他把能動意義的「神」下降至形下的層次,則神化的能動性由形而上下降至形而下,成為心之發用。於是凡關涉活動層面者,在朱熹全解為氣,故心情皆屬氣,而功夫重心勢必移轉至能活動的心氣上。終造成道德實踐內在保證的喪失,以致於人在天理的體證上與實踐上終有所隔,造成與張載心性理通貫系統的明顯分歧。
The ethology and Method of Chang Zai and Chu Xi are based on the theory of Cosmology. Their theory of Cosmology is very much affected by Yi. The only difference lies in the interpretation of the efficient cause, which has totally changed the inner form of reason. From the functions of the efficient cause, Chang Zai established the metaphysical ground for Taixu and Chi, therefore, the true essence and functions of the Taixu and Chi. are divided into two: the metaphysical ground and the physical ground. To improve the presentation of the practical side of the Taixu and Chi, one must go back to his conscience. The key point is to grasp the essence of Taixu. Chu Xi and Chang Zai have the same interpretation on how Cosmology reflects the true essence of human being. That determines the form of conscience. However, he could reflect the activity of efficient cause, Therefore, Chu Xi described things that belonged to the activity ground as Chi. Thus, the mind and feelings are all Chi, moreover, the main body of Method should become autonomous. Finally, the true essence to bring the truth faded away and in turn, it makes the understanding and action on Reason diverged. Moreover, the latter caused conflicts in Chang Zai and Chu Xi's interpretations on the equity of mind and conscience.
Other Identifiers: 74D3177C-99EC-B885-26A0-88183CA699A7
Appears in Collections:中國學術年刊

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