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Title: 譚鑫培清宮演劇考
Authors: 陳芳
Issue Date: Mar-2005
Publisher: 國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract: 開創京劇「以人立派」的宗師譚鑫培,自光緒十六年(1890)被選入宮承應後,有將近二十年的時間,在內廷輪值演戲。一生重要代表劇目,幾乎都曾在宮廷搬演過,所創「譚調」更是風靡一時。因為這是一種曲折悠揚、頓挫有致的清新唱法,一則以前三傑(主要是程、余)打底,並融會各家長處,「跨行當」、「跨劇種」、「跨藝類」地「化用」他山之石;一則掌握咬字吐音的精確性,又善用墊字、嘎調、垜板等行腔技巧,創造唱調的另一種搖曳之美。同時,改動唱詞唸白、調整板眼尺寸、設計身段套式,自然演來不同凡響。而其創立的文武老生行當,文戲武唱,武戲文唱,更奠定了譚派大路子的包容性。如《烏龍院》、《瓊林宴》是安工兼衰派,《定軍山》、《賣馬》、《打漁殺家》是安工兼靠把,《李陵碑》則是靠把兼衰派等。譚派的經典劇目,因此獨樹一幟,特別好看。不論是開場戲如《戰太平》、《南陽關》,武小生或武生戲如《八大鎚》(《王佐斷臂》)、《翠屏山》、《連營寨》,花臉戲如《沙陀國》(《珠簾寨》),武打戲如《盜魂鈴》等,經過譚氏的整編,後來也都成為老生的傳統劇目。譚氏一專多能,博然後精,果然在劇目豐富和發展上卓具貢獻。至於譚氏在清宮合作的主要演員,多是當行主腳。或能兼唱梆子,如龍長勝;或能兼唱崑曲,如王桂花、陳得林;或能自創刀馬旦行當,如于莊兒;或能研發淨腳之[二黃慢板],如劉永春……,可謂人材濟濟。對於譚氏的新腔新調新創意,或許亦有所啟發。總之,由崑曲而皮黃,由武生而老生,譚氏終於以「文武俱精,崑亂不攩」享譽菊壇。
Tan Hsin-Pei (1846-1917) was a master of Peking Opera who created the Tan's school featured by his unique performance. As summoned to service the court since 1890, he had stared a large repertoire that had led the fasion in the entertainer circle. The Tan's singing sytle for the character of old man was characterized by the pensive and gentle voice of flute-like quality. He was skillful at ornaments and variation of rhythm to create a graceful effect. He modified the way of narratives, adjusted the meter and designed postures. In addition to the character of weak old man, he was also adroit in action. He created new categories for the character of old man. For example, the weak old man that played in “Wu-Long Yard” and “Emperor's Feast for the Candidates” emphasized singing as well as performance. The old man that played in “Mt. Ting-Chun”, “Selling Horse”, and “A Fisherman's Revenge” emphasized performance as well as action. The weak old man that played in “Stone Tablet of Li-Ling” emphasized singing as well as action. The well-known repertoires such as “The War in Taiping”, “Nan-Yang Passage”, “Eight Great Hammers”, “The Bandit's Stronghold in Ju-Lien” etc., some of them featured by fighting action, some by the unique performance of the painted face, and some by skillful singing, had been re-organized by Mr. Tan and had become models for the character of old man. In summary, his performance had combined with different character categories, embraced the essence of local operas, and incorporated the property of artistic skills in other fields.
Other Identifiers: 64D2B3F3-1427-5DB3-F6EE-DE66462262BA
Appears in Collections:中國學術年刊

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